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Development of an Alternative Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter and Particulate Number

General Motors LLC-Elana Chapman, Mark Winston-Galant, Pat Geng
University of Michigan-Sophia Pryor
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, called the Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI), and provide the detailed equation in its initial form. In addition, the PEI will be shown to have a good correlation agreement to PMI. The paper will then give a detailed explanation of the data used to develop it. Initial vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
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China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

GM China-Yaowei Zhao
General Motors LLC-Elana Chapman, Pat Geng
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
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Global Market Gasoline Range Fuel Review using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

General Motors-Global Propulsion Systems-Elana Chapman, Mark Winston-Galant, Pat Geng
SGS-Anke Konzack
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline range fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, with good correlation agreement to PMI. In addition, the paper will cover a global assessment of a gasoline range fuel’s sooting tendency based on the PMI number and the proposed method. Areas around the globe where market gasoline range fuels are of concern will be highlighted, in coordination with the new emissions regulations. Vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
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Alternative Fuel Property Correlations to the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI)

General Motors-Global Propulsion Systems-Elana Chapman, Mark Winston-Galant, Pat Geng
University of Michigan-Reuben Latigo, Andre Boehman
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a very helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and vehicle OEMs as a metric to understand a fuels impact on automotive engine sooting, in preparation for new global emissions regulations. The calculation of the index involves generating detailed hydrocarbon analysis (hydrocarbon molecular speciation) using gas chromatography laboratory equipment and the PMI calculation requires the exact list of compounds and correct naming conventions to work properly. The analytical methodology can be cumbersome, when the gas chromatography methodology has to be adjusted for new compounds that are not in the method, or if the compounds are not matching the list for quantification. Also, the method itself is relatively expensive, and not easily transferrable between labs. Therefore, alternative correlations and methods are being sought which can be easily calculated at laboratories around the world. This paper will explore a few correlation methodologies that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the fuel.
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Fuel Octane and Volatility Effects on the Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behavior of a 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

General Motors Co.-Elana Chapman, Richard S. Davis, William Studzinski, Pat Geng
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1226
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Classic, hot-spot induced pre-ignition is a phenomenon that has been observed in gasoline spark ignited engines over the past 60-70 years. With the development of turbocharged, direct-injected (DI) gasoline engines, a new pre-ignition phenomenon occurring at low engine speeds and high loads has been encountered. Termed Stochastic Pre-ignition (SPI), it has become a significant issue to address in allowing for the full potential of gasoline turbo DI technology to improve powertrain efficiency. Many researchers are studying all aspects of the causes of Stochastic Pre-ignition, including causes by oil, fuel and engine hardware systems. The focus of this specific research was to study the relationship of fuel octane and volatility to Stochastic Pre-ignition behavior utilizing a GM 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI engine (LHU).
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Review of 2013 U.S. Retail Biodiesel Blends Quality Survey

General Motors Co.-Shailesh Martin Lopes, Pat Geng
SGS-Anke Konzack
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines and is made from agricultural co-products such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil and other natural oils. Biodiesel is a cleaner burning fuel that is biodegradable and non-toxic compared to petroleum diesel.Biodiesel has become a major alternative fuel for automotive applications and is critical for lowering US dependence on foreign oil and attain energy security. Vehicle manufacturers have developed new vehicle and diesel engine technologies compatible with B6-B20 biodiesel blends meeting ASTM D7467 specifications.Field warranty and validation tests have shown significant concerns with use of poor quality biodiesel fuels including fuel system deposits, engine oil deterioration, and efficiency loss of the after treatment system. Maintaining good quality of biodiesel is critical for success as a commercial fuel.This paper will summarize test results of recently collected retail biodiesel blend samples from the U.S. to provide a snap shot of the current fuel quality in the market. Some of the properties reported include biodiesel content, oxidation stability, acid number, cloud point, water, metals, and glycerin content. Significance…
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Estimation of Elemental Composition of Diesel Fuel Containing Biodiesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

GM Powertrain-Pat Geng
General Motors-Shailesh Martin Lopes
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2600
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in vehicle fuels. Knowledge of fuels elemental composition is helpful in addressing its performance characteristics. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen composition is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy.Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the oxygen content. Typical oxygen content in pure biodiesel (B100) is about 11 weight % while conventional ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel fuel has negligible oxygen content. High oxygen content of biodiesel impacts its characteristics compared to petroleum diesel.A previous paper (SAE2013-01-1139) discussed the change in energy content…
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Calculation of Heating Value for Diesel Fuels Containing Biodiesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Furey Fuels Consulting, LLC-Robert Furey
General Motors Company-Shailesh Martin Lopes, Pat Geng
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1139
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the energy content. The energy content, or heating value, is an important property of motor fuel, since it directly affects the vehicle fuel economy. While the energy content can be measured by combustion of the fuel in a bomb calorimeter, this analytical laboratory testing is time consuming and expensive. It would be more convenient to estimate the energy content from other commonly measured fuel properties. Several standardized empirical methods have been developed in the past for estimating the energy content of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel…
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Correlation of Chemical Compositions and Fuel Properties with Fuel Octane Rating of Gasoline Containing Ethanol

General Motors LLC-Pat Geng, Douglas Conran
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
With increasing use of ethanol in automotive fuel in recent years, which can be made from renewable feedstocks, the chemical composition of gasoline is changed. The compositional change results in many changes in fuel properties. One key property is the octane rating of gasoline. Market data has shown the shifts of octane rating (antiknock index or AKI) upward due to more penetration of E10 gasoline in the US market. However, the increase in research octane is more pronounced as compared to motor octane, therefore the increase in octane sensitivity in gasoline. Refineries have used the change in octane due to ethanol contribution by sending so called sub-grade gasoline to terminals expecting the final blend after mixing with ethanol to meet the market requirement in octane. Thus the octane rating of the final blend will largely depend on the sub-grade gasoline composition and ethanol. This paper presents a general model for the prediction of octane values based on fuel composition and properties of gasoline with different levels of ethanol contents. Thirty-six gasoline samples with different ethanol…
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Elemental Composition Determination and Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratios of Gasoline Containing Ethanol

Furey & Associates LLC-Robert Furey
GM Powertrain-Pat Geng
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in modern fuels. Varying combinations of these elements in motor fuel alter the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F). Stoichiometric A/F ratio is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy.With increasing use of ethanol in automotive fuels in recent years, since it can be made from renewable feedstocks, oxygen contents in fuel are increasing. Oxygen contents can be around 1.7 mass % in European E5 gasoline or 3.5 mass % in U.S. E10 gasoline and up to 29 mass % in E85 fuel. The increase in oxygen content of fuel has resulted in changes in other physical and chemical properties due to the differences between ethanol and hydrocarbons refined from fossil oil. A previous paper (SAE 2010-01-1517) discussed the change in energy content of automotive fuel and the estimation of net heating values from common fuel properties. This paper will discuss the estimation of elemental composition and stoichiometric A/F ratios of gasoline-ethanol blends from common fuel properties. While the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen contents…
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