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Thermal Testing of a Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA-Alberto Franzoso, Marco Molina
ESA/ESTEC-Guido Barbagallo
Published 2009-07-12 by SAE International in United States
A Heat Switch has been developed, namely a device able to autonomously regulate its own thermal conductance in function of the equipment dissipation and environmental heat sink conditions. It is based on a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) technology, with a passive bypass valve which diverts the flow to the Compensation Chamber when needed for regulation purposes.The target application is the potential use on a Mars Rover thermal control system.The paper recalls the Heat Switch design, and reports the results of an extensive test campaign on the ground demonstrator. The performance of the device was found extremely satisfying, and often exceeded the system requirements.
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A Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA-Marco Molina, Alberto Franzoso, Alessandro Bursi
ESA/ESTEC-Guido Barbagallo
Published 2008-06-29 by SAE International in United States
The future Mars rover thermal design presents a unique challenge to the thermal engineers: the need arises for a thermal control system able to keep rover elements within their operational and non-operational temperature ranges in the face of extreme environmental conditions, characterized by broad day/night temperature excursions, cold biased conditions and long periods in standby modes induced by dust storms.A thermal device is needed, which allows the removal of excess heat from dissipating units during the Martian day and to keep them above their minimum operational/survival temperature during night. Moreover the scientific goals introduce strict requirements in terms of allowable internal components temperature ranges and thermal stability, which the candidate device has to fulfill against wide-ranging power dissipation modes.Such a device has been called Variable Thermal Conductance Device, or ‘Heat Switch’. The paper presents a heat switch demonstrator concept, which is based on a Loop Heat Pipe with a temperature-regulating valve.Heat Switch specifications are reviewed, and the main design characteristics to meet the requirements are explained. The demonstrator has been designed, built and tested for…
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The AMS-TOF and ECAL Thermal Tests in Vacuum at SERMS

Carlo Gavazzi Space-Marco Molina, Alberto Franzoso, Christian Vettore
INFN- Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Serena Borsini, Bruna Bertucci, Vincenzo Cascioli, Lucia Di Masso
Published 2007-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The AMS-02 experiment is a space-born instrument designed to perform high precision measurements of cosmic rays and γ-ray fluxes on board of the International Space Station (ISS). All the components of the AMS experiment are designed to withstand the mechanical stresses in the launch phase and to operate in vacuum in a wide range of temperatures. In order to verify the performance of the hardware in harsh conditions like the flight ones, all the components of the AMS instruments undergo a severe qualification procedure before the integration into the detector. In this paper, we will report on the thermo-vacuum tests on the L-TOF (Lower Time of Flight) and ECAL (Electromagnetic CALorimeter) detectors, successfully performed in the SERMS laboratory in June and September 2006, respectively.
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Thermal Analysis for Systems Perturbed in the Linear Domain Method Development and Numerical Validation

Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA-Marco Molina, Alberto Franzoso, Matteo Giacomazzo
Published 2005-07-11 by SAE International in United States
Improvements on the thermal analysis for system perturbed by micro-thermal fluctuations are presented: the method applies to any kind of (small) perturbation, in particular to the random ones.Opposite to time domain conventional transient analysis, this method answers the need for frequency domain thermal analysis dictated by the newest scientific missions, with tight temperature stability requirements (expressed in the frequency domain).The small temperature fluctuations allow for assuming any thermal systems a linear one; hence linear system theory holds, and powerful tools to calculate key parameters like frequency response can be successfully employed.MIMO (Multi-Input-Multi-Output) systems theory is applied, the inputs being perturbations to the thermal system (boundary temperatures oscillations and power sources ripple of any shape: pulse, step, periodic, random, …), while the outputs are the temperatures of the sensible parts.Main advantage of the presented method is that, this way, there is no longer need to stimulate the system with micro-perturbations in transient analysis, thus avoiding: potential numerical errors dedicated simulations for every type of disturbance long processing time.Moreover, this allows to have a synthetic definition how…
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AMS-02 Electronics TV-TB Tests: Testing Philosophy for Small-Series Production

Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS) SpA-Marco Molina, Maddalena Cova, Alberto Franzoso
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-Joseph Burger
Published 2004-07-19 by SAE International in United States
The thermal vacuum / thermal balance test design and execution are described in the paper for the qualification campaign of 37 electronic units flown with the payload of ISS (International Space Station), i.e., AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer). The tests are run in 10 separate test campaigns, across a time frame of 3 years (2002–2005). The tests have been carried on at NSPO (National Space Program Office in Taiwan), maximizing the time usage of thermal vacuum facilities. During each experimental campaign several units are tested at the same time, sharing the vacuum chamber volume. Because independent heaters are applied to each unit, the electronic crates can be tested at temperature levels different from one another. The reliability of thermal analysis is enhanced at each thermal balance test, with the final aim to fully validate the thermal mathematical model deviating less than 3°C from actual measurements. The methodology, test results, and model correlations are presented in the paper with highlights on the “learning curve” across the time. Future activities toward completion are discussed as well.
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The AMS-02 Thermal Control System Design

INFN- PISA-Alberto Franzoso
Lockheed Martin Space Operations-Craig S. Clark
Published 2003-07-07 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on the Thermal Control System (TCS) of the AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer). AMS-02 will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) Starboard segment of the Truss in 2005, where it will acquire data for at least three years. The AMS-02 payload has a mass of about 6700 kg, a power budget of 2kW and consists of 5 different instruments, with their associated electronic equipment.Analytical integration of the AMS-02 thermal mathematical model is described in the paper, together with the main thermal design features.Stringent temperature stability requirements have been satisfied, providing a stable thermal environment that allows for easier calibration of the detectors. The overall thermal design uses a combination of standard and innovative concepts to fit specific instruments needs.
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Numerical Verification of Thermal Stability Requirements for LISA Inertial Sensor in the Frequency Domain

CIRA-Massimiliano Pastena
Mechanical and Thermal Engineering Department - Carlo Gavazzi Space-Marco Molina, Christian Vettore, Laura Beretta, Fabio Nappo, Federico Pamio
Published 2003-07-07 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the thermal modeling and analyses performed on the LISA Technology Package (LTP), with special attention to the frequency domain requirements on the sensitive instrumentation. The new approach is presented, and the modeling and analysis phases are described in detail.Results about LTP thermal stability in the frequency domain are shown, and obtained though two alternate approaches. The first one consists in the study of the transient response of the system to a periodic input with a frequency equal to the minimum frequency of interest, using the well known low-pass filtering properties of the thermal systems. The second is based on the generation of a time dependent input, starting from its Power Spectral Density definition: this input is used to run a transient thermal analysis and finally transform its results into the frequency domain.Thermal stability assessment studies have been performed also at spacecraft level and are well described in [ref. 3].
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