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Senior Drivers, Bicyclists and Pedestrian Behavior Related with Traffic Accidents and Injuries

Applus + Idiada Spain-Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Anita Fiorentino
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems. The first step was to develop the required understanding of accident scenarios, injury mechanisms and risks and to implement these findings in the test tool and test assessment procedures. To this end, accident databases were studied and compared regarding…
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Load Cell Wall Analysis in Oblique Tests

Applus + Idiada Spain-Adria Ferrer, Eduard Infantes
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of the new NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) oblique test configuration presents a new and critical load case that manufacturers are on the way to solving. Towards providing the best tools for passive safety development, this paper presents the work carried out to enable the analysis of the loads transmitted to the barrier in this kind of test. These data enable the identification of the elements of the vehicle that take part in the absorption of energy during the crash and are a valuable tool to improving the safety of vehicles by comparing the loads transmitted to the barrier in oblique tests.To record these data, a load cell wall system located between the deformable barrier and the trolley was installed. To assess the barrier design, one oblique test with the RMDB barrier was carried out. The deformable barrier for the oblique test is instrumented with 9 columns of 3 and 4 load cells with a total of 32 x-axial load cells. The results obtained for 18 of the load cells were treated…
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Comparative Study between the WorldSID and the EuroSID II in Static Impact Tests

Applus Idiada-Maria de Odriozola, Ignacio Lázaro, Adria Ferrer
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
For many years, all Side Impact Crash Test studies have been put into practice considering the results achieved from the EuroSID II dummy. The introduction of the WorldSID to the crash test world has become a milestone not only for vehicle manufacturers but also for crash test laboratories. Because of this, it is necessary to study the differences between the EuroSID II and the new dummy to be used from now on in Euro NCAP Side Impact Tests, the WorldSID.To do this, an in-depth analysis of the structure of both dummies was carried out so as to obtain a clearer view of what can be expected of the values achieved from testing them. Furthermore, a series of impact tests were defined, based on side impact virtual tests, making a special effort to obtain crash test results from both dummies in very similar configurations.By comparing the impact that side impact crashes can have on the individuals, it will be possible to discern if there are any weaknesses in the Passive Safety developments that have been made…
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Vehicle Guiding System through Image Processing in Crash and Misuse Tests

Applus Idiada-Eloi Boix, Adria Ferrer, Xavier Sellart, Sandra Fernandez
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
The increasing variety of test configurations and requirements has leaded to carry out activities of greater complexity. These advanced crash tests usually involve vehicle trajectories which are not straight and cannot be performed with the usual testing system.In order to increase the testing capabilities, a new guiding system was developed. An in-loop processing of the images filmed by a camera enables the vehicle to follow a path marked on the floor. An algorithm for image processing through colour filters was developed to identify the position of the line marked on the floor. Based on this input the steering wheel is rotated by an electric motor which receives the input of the electronic software.After a first phase of development, the system was able to identify the marked line on the floor and control the angle of the steering wheel to maintain the desired trajectory. However, the robustness should be increased. Additionally, a Remote Station should be developed to have a graphic interface that allows to remotely controlling the test, as well as monitoring different parameters of…
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Assessment Methodologies for Forward Looking Integrated Pedestrian Systems and Further Extension to Cyclist Safety: Experimental and Virtual Testing for Pedestrian Protection

Applus Idiada-Adria Ferrer
Autoliv Inc-Rikard Fredriksson
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrians and cyclists are the most unprotected road users and their injury risk in case of accidents is significantly higher than for other road users. The understanding of the influence and sensitivity between important variables describing a pedestrian crash is key for the development of more efficient and reliable safety systems. This paper reflects the related work carried out within the AsPeCSS project. The results summarized out of virtual and physical tests provide valuable information for further development.1168 virtual and 120 physical tests were carried out with adult and child pedestrian headform as well as upper and lower legform impactors representatives of 4 different vehicle front geometries in a wide range of impact speeds, angles and locations. This test matrix was based on previous work carried out within the AsPeCSS project.The results obtained show several trends and influences of input variables (impact speed, angle, location, impactor masses, impactor type) on the particular outcomes. In general, impact speed was the most influential parameter. The increase of impact speed resulted in higher HIC, bending moment or force…
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Tackling Three Critical Issues of Transportation: Environment, Safety and Congestion Via Semi-autonomous Platooning

Applus Idiada-Arturo Davila, Adria Ferrer
Published 2014-03-24 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, platooning emerged as a realistic configuration for semi-autonomous driving. In the SARTRE project, simulation and physical tests were performed to validate the platooning system not only in testing facilities but also in conventional highways.Five vehicles were adapted with autonomous driving systems to have platooning functionalities, enabling to perform platoon tests and assess the feasibility, safety and benefits. Although the tested system was in a prototype, it demonstrated sturdiness and good functionality, allowing performing conventional road tests.First of all the fuel consumption decreased up to 16% in some configurations and different gaps between the vehicles were tested in order to establish the most suitable for platooning in terms of safety and economy. Additionally, the platooning technology enables a new level of safety in highways. Around 85% of the accident causation is the human factor. With platooning, the human factor is reduced almost entirely, making it a more efficient and safer system.With platooning, the traffic flow is more homogeneous with several vehicles travelling at the same speed and therefore accident situations are less probable…
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Legal and Consumer Requirements in ASEAN Countries

Applus IDIADA-Adria Ferrer, Carlos Garcia Gutierrez
Published 2014-03-24 by SAE International in United States
South East Asia is one of the regions with highest traffic-related fatality rates worldwide −18.5 fatalities per 100.000 inhabitants-. In response to that, governments of ASEAN countries are currently introducing new regulations, which will help to improve the road safety standards in the region. This paper reviews new safety regulations in force of following ASEAN countries: Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines.General safety trends promote the approach to international standards as well as the adoption of UNECE regulations. In fact, the 1958 agreement was signed by Thailand and Malaysia in 2006. Besides, Malaysia has gradually adopted fifty-three UNECE regulations so far and is currently considering the inclusion of twenty-four more.After the success of other NCAP organizations, the ASEAN NCAP assessment program was established in 2011. This program is powered by the Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) and the Global New Car Assessment Program (GNCAP). Its purpose is to encourage manufacturers to improve the safety performance of their products by providing consumers with reliable and objective information about the protection provided by…
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Reconstruction Tests Design to Support the Correlation of Real Injuries with Dummy Readings

Fiat-Anita Fiorentino
IDIADA-Alejandro Longton, Adria Ferrer
Published 2012-10-02 by SAE International in United States
From the many sub-tasks of the four study areas of the EC CASPER project, this paper presents the following point:• Child protection improvements as a result of accident reconstructions and development of injury risk curves.The first step in achieving this aim was to collect real world in-depth road accident data involving restrained children, with injuries systematically coded using the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale, AAAM 1998). This activity identified the priority body regions to be protected (therefore requiring injury risk curves) and provided cases to be reconstructed in full scale crash tests. In such reconstructions dummy readings were correlated with the occupants' injuries in the real accident to develop injury risk curves (after validation checks for crash severity and dummy kinematics).At the same time, online and field surveys were carried out to identify the safety of children when travelling in cars. These sociological studies provided information to identify the misuses of the Child Restraint Systems (CRS), resulting in new dynamic testing programs for their evaluation.The integration of these two activities resulted in the development of the…
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