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Durrett, Russell P.
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Downsized-Boosted Gasoline Engine with Exhaust Compound and Dilute Advanced Combustion

General Motors LLC-Jeremie Dernotte, Paul M. Najt, Russell P. Durrett
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0795
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This article presents experimental results obtained with a disruptive engine platform, designed to maximize the engine efficiency through a synergetic implementation of downsizing, high compression-ratio, and importantly exhaust-heat energy recovery in conjunction with advanced lean/dilute low-temperature type combustion. The engine architecture is a supercharged high-power output, 1.1-liter engine with two-firing cylinders and a high compression ratio of 13.5: 1. The integrated exhaust heat recovery system is an additional, larger displacement, non-fueled cylinder into which the exhaust gas from the two firing cylinders is alternately transferred to be further expanded.The main goal of this work is to implement in this engine, advanced lean/dilute low-temperature combustion for low-NOx and high efficiency operation, and to address the transition between the different operating modes. Those include well-mixed charge compression-ignition at low-load, and a mixed-mode combustion at higher loads, before transitioning to boosted homogenous and stochiometric spark-ignited combustion. Here, the mixed-mode combustion strategy is composed of a deflagration of a stratified mixture created by a late direct injection, then triggering a controlled autoignition of the surrounding gas, improving the robustness…
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Iterative Learning Control for a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation in a Test Cell

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Colorado School of Mines-Kevin L. Moore
General Motors Company-Hai Wu, Jyh-Shin Chen, Meng-Feng Li, Russell P. Durrett
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0162
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
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Detailed Unburned Hydrocarbon Investigations in a Highly-Dilute Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Regime

SAE International Journal of Engines

Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin – Madison-Chad P. Koci, Youngchul Ra, Roger Krieger, Mike Andrie, David E. Foster
Powertrain Systems Research Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center-Robert M. Siewert, Russell P. Durrett
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0928
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) in a highly-dilute diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) regime. This research concentrates on understanding the mechanisms that control the formation of UHC via experiments and simulations in a 0.48L signal-cylinder light duty engine operating at 2000 r/min and 5.5 bar IMEP with multiple injections. A multi-gas FTIR along with other gas and smoke emissions instruments are used to measure exhaust UHC species and other emissions. Controlled experiments in the single-cylinder engine are then combined with three computational tools, namely heat release analysis of measured cylinder pressure, analysis of spray trajectory with a phenomenological spray model using in-cylinder thermodynamics [1], and KIVA-3V Chemkin CFD computations recently tested at LTC conditions [2]. This study looks at the effect of inlet oxygen concentration, fuel spray targeting, injection event timing, injector sac volume, rail pressure, and boost pressure which are each explored within a defined operation range in LTC. This research compliments simultaneous research which concentrates on understanding the benefits of multiple injections on engine performance…
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Multiple-Event Fuel Injection Investigations in a Highly-Dilute Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Regime

SAE International Journal of Engines

Engine Research Center, University of Wisconsin – Madison-Chad P. Koci, Youngchul Ra, Roger Krieger, Mike Andrie, David E. Foster
Powertrain Systems Research Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center-Robert M. Siewert, Russell P. Durrett
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0925
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of multiple injections in a highly-dilute diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) regime. This research concentrates on understanding the performance and emissions benefits of multiple injections via experiments and simulations in a 0.48L signal cylinder light-duty engine operating at 2000 r/min and 5.5 bar IMEP. Controlled experiments in the single-cylinder engine are then combined with three computational tools, namely heat release analysis of measured cylinder pressure, a phenomenological spray model using in-cylinder thermodynamics [1], and KIVA-3V Chemkin CFD computations recently tested at LTC conditions [2]. This study examines the effects of fuel split distribution, injection event timing, rail pressure, and boost pressure which are each explored within a defined operation range in LTC. This research compliments simultaneous detailed unburned hydrocarbon research which concentrates on the mechanisms that control the formation of UHC during LTC engine operation [3].Engine operating conditions for low UHC/CO from previous single injection experiments are observed using split (i.e., multiple-event) injections. Fuel split is defined by the fractional percentage of total fuel injected in…
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A Detailed Comparison of Emissions and Combustion Performance Between Optical and Metal Single-Cylinder Diesel Engines at Low Temperature Combustion Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Advanced Diesel, General Motors Powertrain-A. Manuel, D. Gonzalez
Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories-Will F. Colban, Duksang Kim, Paul C. Miles
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1066
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A detailed comparison of cylinder pressure derived combustion performance and engine-out emissions is made between an all-metal single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine and a geometrically equivalent engine designed for optical accessibility. The metal and optically accessible single-cylinder engines have the same nominal geometry, including cylinder head, piston bowl shape and valve cutouts, bore, stroke, valve lift profiles, and fuel injection system. The bulk gas thermodynamic state near TDC and load of the two engines are closely matched by adjusting the optical engine intake mass flow and composition, intake temperature, and fueling rate for a highly dilute, low temperature combustion (LTC) operating condition with an intake O2 concentration of 9%. Subsequent start of injection (SOI) sweeps compare the emissions trends of UHC, CO, NOx, and soot, as well as ignition delay and fuel consumption. The effect of EGR composition is also investigated to determine the level of chemical equivalency required for adequate EGR simulation in an optical engine. Five simulated EGR conditions are compared to evaluate the influence of water vapor, CO, and UHC.Results show that the…
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Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

SAE International Journal of Engines

General Motors Corporation-Xin He, Russell P. Durrett
University of Minnesota-Zongxuan Sun
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0637
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment.The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches. First, because of the lower noise and smoke emissions, LIVC offers a promising strategy to expand early premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI)…
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Investigation of Mixing and Temperature Effects on HC/CO Emissions for Highly Dilute Low Temperature Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

Powertrain Systems Research Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center-Russell P. Durrett, Robert M. Siewert
University of Wisconsin - Madison, Engine Research Center-Richard Opat, Youngchul Ra, Manuel A. Gonzalez D., Roger Krieger, Rolf D. Reitz, David E. Foster
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
There is a significant global effort to study low temperature combustion (LTC) as a tool to achieve stringent emission standards with future light duty diesel engines. LTC utilizes high levels of dilution (i.e., EGR > 60% with <10%O2 in the intake charge) to reduce overall combustion temperatures and to lengthen ignition delay, This increased ignition delay provides time for fuel evaporation and reduces in-homogeneities in the reactant mixture, thus reducing NOx formation from local temperature spikes and soot formation from locally rich mixtures. However, as dilution is increased to the limits, HC and CO can significantly increase.Recent research suggests that CO emissions during LTC result from the incomplete combustion of under-mixed fuel and charge gas occurring after the premixed burn period [1, 2]1. The objective of the present work was to increase understanding of the HC/CO emission mechanisms in LTC at part-load. To do this, fluid mechanics and chemical kinetics were decoupled by selectively varying in-cylinder mixing and charge temperature to influence not only the formation of CO and HC but also their oxidation during…
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Minimum Engine Flame Temperature Impacts on Diesel and Spark-Ignition Engine NOx Production

Cummins Engine Company-Patrick F. Flynn, Gary L. Hunter, Russell P. Durrett, Lisa A. Farrell, Wole C. Akinyemi
Published 2000-03-06 by SAE International in United States
Empirical and analytical data on the minimum possible flame temperatures for combustion processes rapid enough to be effective for engine operation are presented. The fundamental basis for these minimum temperatures is explored with chemical kinetic analysis. The combination of these minimum temperatures and the time scales associated with engine processes yield minimum possible levels of in-cylinder NOx production for both diesel and spark-ignition engines. These minimum NOx levels are identified and validated empirically. Legislated NOx levels lower than those indicated will require exhaust aftertreatment in addition to in-cylinder combustion control.
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Diesel Combustion: An Integrated View Combining Laser Diagnostics, Chemical Kinetics, And Empirical Validation

Cummins Engine Company-Patrick F. Flynn, Russell P. Durrett, Gary L. Hunter, Axel O. zur Loye, O. C. Akinyemi
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Charles K. Westbrook
Published 1999-03-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a structure for the diesel combustion process based on a combination of previously published and new results. Processes are analyzed with proven chemical kinetic models and validated with data from production-like direct injection diesel engines. The analysis provides new insight into the ignition and particulate formation processes, which combined with laser diagnostics, delineates the two-stage nature of combustion in diesel engines. Data are presented to quantify events occurring during the ignition and initial combustion processes that form soot precursors. A framework is also proposed for understanding the heat release and emission formation processes.
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