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Detection of Polar Compounds Condensed on Particulate Matter Using Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sam Lewis, John Storey, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran, Melanie Moses-DeBusk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0395
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new analytical method to aid in the understanding of the organic carbon (OC) phase of particulate matter (PM) from advanced compression ignition (ACI) operating modes, is presented. The presence of NO2 and unburned fuel aromatics in ACI emissions, and the low exhaust temperatures that result from this low temperature combustion strategy, provide the right conditions for the formation of carboxylic acids and nitroaromatic compounds. These polar compounds contribute to OC in the PM and are not typically measured using nonpolar solvent extraction methods such as the soluble organic fraction (SOF) method. The new extraction and detection method employs capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI MS) and was specifically developed to determine polar organic compounds in the ACI PM emissions. The new method identified both nitrophenols and aromatic carboxylic acids in the ACI PM. The ACI air-fuel stratification mode and NOx emissions were found to correlate with the presence and amount of the individual polar species identified.
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Compatibility of Elastomers with Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers and Blends with Diesel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Martin Wissink, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0620
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of PODEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of PODEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 50, 67, at 100% by volume. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell. The elastomer materials included multiple fluoroelastomers (Viton and fluorosilicone) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), as well as neoprene, polyurethane, epichlorohydrin (ECO), PVC-nitrile blend (OZO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and silicone. The exposure results indicated overall poor compatibility for PODE, with every elastomer except for fluorosilicone exhibiting greater than 30% volume swell at the 33% blend level. The…
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Characterization of Hydrocarbon Emissions from Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition Engine Operating on a Higher Reactivity Gasoline Fuel

SAE International Journal of Engines

Aramco Research Center-Jong Lee, Tom Tzanetakis, Kukwon Cho, Matthew Lorey
Delphi Automotive Systems LLC-Mark Sellnau
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0747
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Low temperature combustion engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce higher engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited by the fuel properties. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON 92 E10) and a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80 E0), were compared on Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEPg) to medium load conditions (1500 rpm/6 bar and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEPg). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts, between which was located the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet. Samples were taken at engine-out, between the catalysts, and at tailpipe locations. In addition, part of the raw exhaust was diluted and sampled for HC speciation. Canisters and sorbent membranes were used to collect volatile HCs and semi-volatile HCs, respectively. Di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) cartridges were also used for collecting…
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Compatibility Assessment of Elastomeric Infrastructure Materials with Neat Diesel and a Diesel Blend Containing 20 Percent Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Sam Lewis, James Keiser, Timothy Theiss
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0888
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of elastomer materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. (This fuel blend is not to be confused with B20, which is a blend of diesel fuel with 20% biodiesel.) The elastomer types evaluated in this study included fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, neoprene, and silicone. All of these elastomer types are used in sealing applications, but some, like the nitrile rubbers are also common hose materials. The elastomer specimens were exposed to the two fuel types for 4 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured. A solubility analysis was performed to better understand the performance of plastic materials in fuel blends composed of bio-oil and diesel.All of the elastomers exhibited higher solubility (volume swell) with the Bio20 fuel blend consistent with a solubility assessment. However, many of the elastomers (except neoprene, SBR,…
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Compatibility Assessment of Plastic Infrastructure Materials with Off-Highway Diesel and a Diesel Blend Containing 20 Percent Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Sam Lewis, James Keiser, Timothy Theiss
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0893
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. Bio20 is not to be confused with B20, which is a diesel blend containing 20% biodiesel. The feedstock, processing, and chemistry of biodiesel are markedly different from bio-oil.Plastic materials included those identified for use as seals, coatings, piping and fiberglass resins, but many are also used in vehicle fueling systems. The plastic specimens were exposed to the two fuel types for 16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured to determine extent of property change. A solubility analysis was performed to better understand the performance of plastic materials in fuel blends composed of bio-oil and diesel.All of the plastic materials evaluated in this study exhibited higher solubility (volume swell) with the Bio20 fuel blend. This result was predicted by the solubility analysis. However, there were two notable exceptions;…
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Carbonyl Formation during High Efficiency Clean Combustion of FACE Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Samuel A. Lewis, John Storey, C. Scott Sluder, Kukwon Cho, Raynella Connatser, Teresa Barone
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2212
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The low temperature conditions that occur during high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) often lead to the formation of partially oxidized HC species such as aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Using the diesel fuels specified by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) working group, carbonyl species were collected from the exhaust of a light duty diesel engine operating under HECC conditions. High pressure liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to speciate carbonyls as large as C 9 . A relationship between carbonyl species formed in the exhaust and fuel composition and properties was determined. Data were collected at the optimum fuel efficiency point for a typical road load condition. Results of the carbonyl analysis showed changes in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde formation, formation of higher molecular weight carbonyls and the formation of aromatic carbonyls. Details of these changes in carbonyl formation and discussion of formation mechanisms will be presented.
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