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A Contribution to Improving the Thermal Management of Powertrain Systems

SAE International Journal of Engines

Università della Calabria, Italy-Teresa Castiglione, Diego Perrone, Angelo Algieri, Sergio Bova
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0003
Published 2019-10-08 by SAE International in United States
This work presents a generalized methodology for the optimal thermal management of different powertrain devices. The methodology is based on the adoption of an electrically driven pump and on the development of a specifically designed controller algorithm. This is achieved following a Model Predictive Control approach and requires a generalized lumped-parameters model of the thermal exchange between the device walls and the coolant. The methodology is validated at a test rig, with reference to a four-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Results show that the proposed approach allows a reduction in fuel consumption of about 2-3% during the engine warm-up, a decrease in fuel consumption of about 1-2% during fully warmed operation, and an estimated fuel consumption reduction of about 2.5-3% in an NEDC. Finally, the investigation highlights that the proposed approach reduces the risk of after-boiling when the engine is rapidly switched off after a prolonged high-load operation.
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Knock Mitigation by Means of Coolant Control

Università della Calabria-Diego Perrone, Luigi Falbo, Teresa Castiglione, Sergio Bova
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The possibility to mitigate the knock onset by means of a controlled coolant flow rate is investigated. The study is carried out on a small displacement, N.A. 4-valve per cylinder SI engine. The substitution of the standard belt-driven pump with an electrically driven one allows the variation of the coolant flow rate regardless of engine speed and permits, therefore, the adoption of a controlled coolant flow rate. The first set of experimental tests aims at evaluating the engine operating condition and the coolant flow rate, which are more favorable to the knock onset. Starting from this condition, subsequent experimental tests are carried out for transient engine operating conditions, by varying the coolant flow rates and evaluating, therefore, its effects on cylinder pressure fluctuations. In all the experiments, the spark advance and the equivalence ratio are controlled by the ECU according to the production engine map. The results show that the effects of coolant flow rate on in-cylinder pressure fluctuations are not negligible and the implementation of a predictive controller for the management of the coolant…
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Powertrain Thermal Management for CO2 Reduction

Università della Calabria-Teresa Castiglione, Francesco Rovense, Angelo Algieri, Sergio Bova
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
This work presents a methodology for the optimal thermal management of different powertrain devices, with particular regard to ICEs, power electronic units (IGBT) and PEM Fuel cells. The methodology makes use of Model Predictive Control by means of a zero-dimensional model for the heat transfer between the device and the coolant. The control is based on the careful monitoring of the coolant thermal state by means of a metrics for the occurrence of nucleate boiling. The introduction of an electrically driven pump for the control of the coolant flow rate is considered. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is presented with reference to an ICE operation. Experimental tests show the advantages of the methodology during warm-up, under fully warmed operation and for the avoidance of after-boiling.
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A Model Predictive Approach to Avoid Coolant After-Boiling in ICE

Università della Calabria-Teresa Castiglione, Pietropaolo Morrone, Sergio Bova
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The after-boiling phenomenon in internal combustion engines can occur when the engine is suddenly switched-off after a period of prolonged high-load operation. In this case, the coolant flow rate stops while the engine wall temperature is quite high; therefore, some evaporation occurs, pressure in the cooling circuit increases and part of the coolant is lost through the radiator relief valve. The control of the coolant flow rate by means of an electric pump instead of the standard belt driven one offers the possibility of overcoming this issue. In the present paper, a model-based control of the coolant flow rate is proposed in conjunction with the adoption of an electric pump in the engine cooling system. Experimental tests and simulations have been carried out starting from high speed-high load engine operation; the engine was then brought to idle and, shortly after, switched-off. A comparison with the adoption of the standard belt-driven pump in the cooling system lay-out is presented in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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ICE Thermal Management: A Model Predictive Control Approach for CO2 Reduction

University of Calabria-Teresa Castiglione, Giuseppe Franzè, Angelo Algieri, Pietropaolo Morrone, Sergio Bova
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we propose a novel control architecture for dealing with the requirements arising in a cooling system of an ICE. The idea is to take advantage of the joint action of an electric pump and of an ad-hoc regulation module, which is used to determine adequate flow rates despite engine speeds. Specifically, a robust Model Predictive Control approach is exploited to take care formally of input/output constraints and disturbance effects of the resulting lumped parameter model of the engine cooling system, which incorporates the nucleate boiling heat transfer regime. Numerical simulations and test rig experimental data are presented. The results achieved show that the proposed control scheme is capable of providing effective and safe cooling while mitigating disturbance effects and minimizing coolant flow rates when compared with the action pertaining to standard crankshaft driven pumps.
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A Comparative Analysis of Active and Passive Emission Control Systems Adopting Standard Emission Test Cycles

University of Calabria-Angelo Algieri, Pietropaolo Morrone, Teresa Castiglione, Sergio Bova
University of Malta-Jessica Settino
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The aim of the present work is to analyse and compare the energetic performances and the emissions conversion capability of active and passive aftertreatment systems for lean burn engines. To this purpose, a computational one-dimensional transient model has been developed and validated. The code permits to assess the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas, to evaluate the conversion of the main engine pollutants, and to estimate the energy effectiveness.The response of the systems to variations in engine operating conditions have been investigated considering standard emission test cycles.The analysis highlighted that the active flow control tends to increase the thermal inertia of the apparatus and then it appears more suitable to maintain higher temperature level and to guarantee higher pollutants conversion at low engine loads after long full load operation. Conversely, the unidirectional flow is preferable when a rapid heating (i.e., cold start, warm up phase, etc.) is required. Depending on the engine load and the requested converter thermal level, the coupled operation of active and passive flow represents the possible strategy apt…
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A Novel Cooling System Control Strategy for Internal Combustion Engines

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Universita della Calabria-Teresa Castiglione, Francesco Pizzonia, Sergio Bova
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0226
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
An innovative control strategy, which is based on the Robust Model Predictive Control (MPC) methodology, was developed with the purpose of optimizing the engine thermal management; the proposed control strategy adjusts the coolant flow rate by means of an electric pump, in order to bring the cooling system to operate around the onset of nucleate boiling. In the present paper, the advantages of the proposed cooling approach are evaluated along the NEDC homologation cycle, which was both simulated and replicated by means of laboratory tests; the latter include coolant, lubricant and wall temperature measurements. Special attention was reserved to the warm-up period. The case considered herein is that of a Spark Ignition engine, about 1.2 dm3 displacement, and a comparison with standard crankshaft driven pump is included. The proposed strategy makes use of a dynamic model of the cooling system of an ICE that is able to predict the heat transfer both under single-phase forced convection and in the presence of nucleate or saturated boiling. The model, which was widely validated by experimental tests, also…
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