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Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low-Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

Continental-Giovanni Avolio
General Motors-Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo, Giacomo Belgiorno
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.In this framework, a comprehensive approach covering the whole powertrain is of primary importance in order to simultaneously meet the performance, efficiency, noise and emission targets, and therefore, further development of the combustion system design and injection system represent important levers for additional improvements. For this purpose, a dedicated 0.5 dm3 single-cylinder engine has…
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Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

FPT Industrial SpA-Stefano Golini, Francesco Giovanni Rutigliano
Istituto Motori CNR-Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A growing interest towards heavy-duty engines powered with NG, dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize the catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel ratio (AFR).A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined λ variation, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions.A surface reactions kinetic mechanism, representing CH4, CO, H2 oxidation and NO reduction, has been appropriately calibrated in steady-state operation, using a step-by-step procedure all over the engine operating conditions at different AFRs. Then transient conditions were numerically reproduced, through cyclical and…
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel-LPG Blends

Istituto Motori CNR-Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Gabriele Di Blasio, Carlo Beatrice, Roberto Ianniello
Universita di Cassino-Gustavo Fontana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0038
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Recently, it has been worth pointing out the relevance of alternative fuels in the improvement of air quality conditions and in the mitigation of global warming. In order to deal with these demands, in recent studies, it has been considered a great variety of alternative fuels. It goes without saying that the alternative fuels industry needs the best of the efficiency with a moderate layout. From this perspective, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) could represent a valid option, although it is not a renewable fuel. In terms of polluting emissions, the LPG can reduce nitrous oxides and smoke concentrations in the air, a capability that has a relevant importance for the modern pollution legislation. LPG is well known as an alternative fuel for Spark Ignition (SI) engines and, more recently, LPG systems have also been introduced in the Compression Ignition (CI) engines in dual-fuel configuration.In this research, LPG-Diesel liquid-blend has been used to power a CI engine in mixed fuel configuration. For this purpose, accurate modifications have been made on the single cylinder test ring and…
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Emissive Behavior of a Heavy-Duty SI Gas Engine During WHTC

Istituto Motori CNR-Chiara Guido, Valentina Fraioli, Pierpaolo Napolitano, Salvatore Alfuso, Carlo Beatrice
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the arduous aim to reduce petroleum fuel consumption and toxic emissions, gaseous fuels can represent an alternative solution for heavy duty applications with respect to conventional liquid fuels.At the same time, the imposition of more stringent emission regulations in the transport sector, is a crucial aspect to be taken into account during the development of future gas engines.Aim of the present paper was to characterize a heavy duty spark ignition engine, under development for Euro VI compliance, with a particular focus on exhaust particulate emissions. In this sense, the engine was installed on a dynamic test bench, accurately instrumented to analyze combustion evolution, performance and exhaust pollutant emissions, along the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC).The emissions diagnostic devices included a gas analysis system for the measurement of regulated species, a photo-acoustic sensor and a fast particulate spectrometer for on-line soot, particle number (PN) and particle size measurements, during the transient engine tests. The system layout comprised also a Thermodenuder to provide information on the volatile species contribution to particles emissions.The results reveal a correlation…
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Key Fuel Injection System Features for Efficiency Improvement in Future Diesel Passenger Cars

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Continental Corp-Giovanni Avolio
GM Global Propulsion Systems-Alberto Vassallo
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0547
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Diesel will continue to be an indispensable energy carrier for the car fleet CO2 emission targets in the short-term. This is particularly relevant for heavy-duty vehicles as for mid-size cars and SUVs. Looking at the latest technology achievements on the after-treatment systems, it can be stated that the concerning about the NOx emission gap between homologation test and real road use is basically solved, while the future challenge for diesel survival is to keep its competitiveness in the CO2 vs cost equation in comparison to other propulsion systems.The development of the combustion system design still represents an important leverage for further efficiency and emissions improvements while keeping the current excellent performance in terms of power density and low-end torque.The paper describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for car application that, leveraging on the high flexibility of the latest fuel injection technology, combines outstanding power and fuel efficiency with low pollutant emissions in ultralight engine designed for lower maximum peak cylinder pressure. The study has been carried out on a 0.5l…
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The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Continental GmbH, Germany-Giovanni Avolio
General Motors Global Propulsion Systems, Italy-Alberto Vassallo, Francesco Concetto Pesce
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-02-0010
Published 2019-01-23 by SAE International in United States
The article describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement. The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components’ light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features has been thoroughly experimentally examined. The results confirmed the benefits of the employment of high fuel injection pressures as a way to reduce the pfp, combining competitive performance and excellent fuel efficiency with emissions and noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) requirements of last generation diesel engines for passenger car applications. In…
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Outwardly Opening Hollow-Cone Diesel Spray Characterization under Different Ambient Conditions

Istituto Motori CNR-Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Carlo Beatrice
Università di Cassino-Roberto Ianniello
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The combustion quality in modern diesel engines depends strictly on the quality of the air-fuel mixing and, in turn, from the quality of spray atomization process. So air-fuel mixing is strongly influenced by the injection pressure, geometry of the nozzle duct and the hydraulic characteristics of the injector. In this context, spray concepts alternative to the conventional multi-hole nozzles could be considered as solutions to the extremely high injection pressure increase to assure a higher and faster fuel-air mixing in the piston bowl, with the final target of increasing the fuel efficiency and reducing the engine emissions.The study concerns an experimental depiction of a spray generated through a prototype high-pressure hollow-cone nozzle, under evaporative and non-evaporative conditions, injecting the fuel in a constant-volume combustion vessel controlled in pressure and temperature up to engine-like gas densities in order to measure the spatial and temporal fuel patterns. The spray evolution was characterized by means of two optical techniques, schlieren and Mie scattering. Schlieren images take into account of both liquid and vapor fraction, while the Mie-scattering for…
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Assessment of the New Features of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector by Means of Engine Performance Characterization and Spray Visualization

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Sequino, Giacomo Belgiorno, Gabriele Di Blasio, Ezio Mancaruso, Carlo Beatrice, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The application of more efficient compression ignition combustion concepts requires advancement in terms of fuel injection technologies. The injector nozzle is the most critical component of the whole injection system for its impact on the combustion process. It is characterized by the number of holes, diameter, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of the nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to promote the atomization process but the number of holes must be increased to keep constant the injected fuel mass. This logic has been applied to the development of a new generation of injectors. First, the tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate. The vertical movement of the needle generates an annulus area for the fuel delivery on 360 degrees, so controlling the atomization as a function of the vertical plate position. Second, on the base of the obtained results, the authors have introduced a new nozzle configuration. This is characterized by a hybrid fuel injection concept,…
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The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

Continental Corp-Giovanni Avolio
GM Global Propulsion Systems-Alberto Vassallo, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement.The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features have been thoroughly experimentally examined.The results confirmed the benefits of the employment of high fuel injection pressures as a way to reduce the pfp, combining competitive performance and excellent fuel efficiency with emissions and Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) requirements of last generation diesel engines for passenger car applications. In particular, the paper…
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Assessment of Engine Control Parameters Effect to Minimize GHG Emissions in a Dual Fuel NG/Diesel Light Duty Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Chiara Guido, Pierpaolo Napolitano, Valentina Fraioli, Carlo Beatrice, Nicola Del Giacomo
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The interest in Natural Gas (NG) as alternative fuel for transportation is constantly growing, mostly due to its large availability and lower environmental impact with respect to gasoline or diesel fuel. In this scenario, the application of the Dual Fuel (DF) Diesel- Natural Gas (NG) combustion concept to light duty engines can represent an important route to increment the diffusion of natural gas use. Many studies have proven the benefits of DF with respect to conventional diesel combustion in terms of CO2, NOx, PM and PN emissions, with the main drawback of high unburned hydrocarbon, mainly at low/partial engine loads. This last aspect still prevents the application of DF mode to small displacement engines.In the present work, a 2.0 L Euro 5 compliant diesel engine, equipped with an advanced electronic closed-loop combustion control (CLCC) system, has been set up to operate in DF mode and tested on a dyno test bench. The experimental campaign was performed in steady-state engine conditions and organized in two phases. Firstly, the aim was to identify optimal values of NG substitution…
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