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Aoki, Hideki
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Analysis of CO Emission Sources in Diesel Combustion (Third Report)~CO Reduction Techniques and its Validation

Toyota Central R&D Labs.-Takayuki Fuyuto, Reiko Ueda, Yoshiaki Hattori, Jun'ichi Mizuta, Kazuhiro Akihama
Toyota Industries Corp.-Hideki Aoki, Tsutomu Umehara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0340
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
CO emission sources from diesel combustion with multiple fuel injections were analyzed by using in-cylinder CO-LIF imaging and numerical simulation. The major source of CO emission under low-load conditions is the over-diffusion of pilot sprays, and that under high-load condition is the shortage of oxygen in the rich regions at the frame front. As an example of CO reduction techniques, a new piston-cavity with a stepped lip which reduces the squish flow velocity was introduced. Its effects on CO emission were validated by exhaust emission tests and simulations.
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High Efficiency and Clean Diesel Combustion Concept using Double Premixed Combustion: D-SPIA

Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Masahiro Machida, Tsutomu Kawae, Takeshi Tanaka, Hideki Aoki, Yoshio Sugiyama, Tsutomu Umehara
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A new concept, Diesel Staggered Premixed Ignition with Accelerated oxidation (D-SPIA) was developed for lower exhaust emissions and carbon dioxide (CO₂) and this is based on divided fuel injection before top dead center (TDC). D-SPIA is a result of investigating various diesel combustion methods. Although the D-SPIA is a type of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), it has a distinct feature of double premixed combustion by optimum injection quantities and staggered timing, which can achieve an ideal heat release rate for low pollutant emissions and fuel consumption.Based on this concept, second injection timing and the proportion of the second fuel injection quantity play significant roles to reduce smoke, and hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. The second injection timing has a close relation to the premixed time of the second fuel injection and smoke level. The in-cylinder temperature at the second injection timing, which is related to the premixed time of the second fuel injection, is affected by the low-temperature heat release (LTHR) or the high-temperature heat release (HTHR) of the first fuel injection.…
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High Efficiency and Clean Diesel Combustion Concept Using Double Premixed Combustion (Second Report)~Influence of Environmental Variation and Fuel Cetane Quality on New Concept Combustion

Tsutomu Kawae, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Takeshi Tanaka, Hideki Aoki, Yoshio Sugiyama, Tsutomu Umehara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0656
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
We investigated combustion robustness of new concept combustion, named D-SPIA, regarding intake air temperature, engine coolant temperature and fuel cetane quality. Through this testing we found out that heat release rate of D-SPIA could be maintained at desired phase by control of air-fuel ratio and/or injection timing against change of the environmental conditions. Besides, the combustion of D-SPIA was stable for using of lower cetane fuel.Finally, we tested a prototype engine installed D-SPIA combustion concept on transient engine test bench and could verify it had a potential to meet Euro6 regulation without any DeNOx after-treatment, showing no fuel penalty.
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Analysis of CO Emission Sources in Diesel Combustion (Second Report)~Validation of Numerical Simulation and Analysis of CO Emission Sources

Takayuki Fuyuto, Reiko Ueda, Takafumi Matsumoto, Yoshiaki Hattori, Jun'ichi Mizuta, Kazuhiro Akihama, Hideki Aoki, Tsutomu Umehara, Hisaki Ito, Akio Kawaguchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0658
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In-cylinder CO distribution in diesel combustion was measured using two-photon excitation CO-LIF. The results obtained with CO-LIF were used to validate the accuracy of a numerical simulation. The measured location of the dense CO gas cloud, as obtained by the LIF measurement, agreed closely with the results of the simulation. The major source of the CO emissions under low-load conditions is the over-diffusion of the pilot sprays, while that under high-load conditions is the shortage of oxygen in the rich regions at the flame front.
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Analysis of CO Emission Sources in Diesel Combustion (First Report)~In-Cylinder CO Imaging Using 2-Photon Excitation LIF

Toyota Central R&D Labs.-Takayuki Fuyuto, Takafumi Matsumoto, Yoshiaki Hattori, Reiko Ueda, Kazuhiro Akihama
Toyota Industries-Hideki Aoki, Tsutomu Umehara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0096
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
To analyze the carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources in diesel combustion, an in-cylinder CO imaging technique using two-photon excitation LIF was developed. While overlapping of the light emitted by the soot particles, over the weak CO fluorescence, became a serious problem, it was solved by optimizing the imaging direction, and by increasing the level of laser irradiation used for LIF excitation. The results of in-cylinder CO-LIF imaging were compared with the results obtained with CFD simulation and the agreement was found to be excellent. The results of LIF and CFD showed that the major source of CO emissions under low load conditions is the over-diffusion of the pilot sprays. These prevent the local temperature from rising sufficiently to oxidize the CO.