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Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Ludovica Luise, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Lund University-Zhenkan Wang, Panagiota Stamatoglou, Marcus Lundgren, Oivind Andersson, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated. This ability to study individual cycles aids the understanding of the mixture formation process as well as the cycle-to-cycle variations. Strong air entrainment at the boundary layer can be clearly…
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Transition from HCCI to PPC: Investigation of Fuel Distribution by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF)

SAE International Journal of Engines

Lund University-Zhenkan Wang, Sara Lonn, Alexios Matamis, Oivind Andersson, Martin Tuner, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0748
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In a previous study, in order to investigate the effect of charge stratification on combustion behavior such as combustion efficiency and combustion phasing which also largely affects the emissions, an experiment was conducted in a heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) metal engine. The engine behavior and emission characteristics were studied in the transition from HCCI mode to PPC mode by varying the start of injection (SOI) timing. To gain more detailed information of the mixing process, in-cylinder laser diagnostic measurements, namely fuel-tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging, were conducted in an optical version of the heavy-duty CI engine mentioned above. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time to perform fuel-tracer PLIF measurements in an optical engine with a close to production bowl in piston combustion chamber, under transition conditions from HCCI to PPC mode. Results show that four mixing schemes can be distinguished as the SOI timings are varied during the transition. They are linked to the results presented in the reference paper, where emissions were varied in different zones. For SOI…
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Effects of Post-Injections Strategies on UHC and CO at Gasoline PPC Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Optical Engine

Lund University-Marcus Olof Lundgren, Zhenkan Wang, Alexios Matamis, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter, Martin Tuner, Marcus Alden
Volvo AB-Andersson Arne
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown potential in terms of high efficiency with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot. Despite these benefits, emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main shortcomings of the concept. These are caused, among other things, by overlean zones near the injector tip and injector dribble. Previous diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) research has demonstrated post injections to be an effective strategy to mitigate these emissions. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of post injections on CO and UHC emissions in a quiescent (non-swirling) combustion system. A blend of primary reference fuels, PRF87, having properties similar to US pump gasoline was used at PPC conditions in a heavy duty optical engine. The start of the main injection was maintained constant. Dwell and mass repartition between the main and post injections were varied to evaluate their effect. All points were run at 7 bar IMEPg. High-speed imaging of the natural combustion luminescence was performed together with measurements of performance…
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Comparison of Laser-Extinction and Natural Luminosity Measurements for Soot Probing in Diesel Optical Engines

Lund University-Zheming Li, Yann Gallo, Ted Lind, Oivind Andersson, Marcus Alden, Mattias Richter
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work. The data compensation successfully reduced the transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and made it possible to study in-cylinder low temperature soot residual. The KL curves were compared with NL curve in this work. In the…
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Optical study on combustion transition from HCCI to PPC with gasoline compression ignition in a HD engine

Combustion Engines, Lund University-Marcus Lundgren, Öivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Combustion Physics, Lund University-Joakim Rosell, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The partially premixed combustion (PPC) concept has shown high efficiency with low soot emissions. However, the in-cylinder phenomena are still to be explained and evaluated for further progress in the research. This work studies the start of combustion process during a transition from homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to PPC. The process is visualized using a heavy-duty, non-swirling engine modified for optical access. High speed video was used to capture the natural luminosity of the combustion. The fuel used was PRF87. Single and double injection strategies were used at a load kept to the moderate level of 7.5 bar IMEPg. Single injections were swept from early HCCI to retarded PPC conditions whilst running a cycle to cycle temperature sweep, to capture the effect of injection timing and temperature differences simultaneously. Results show that retarded injections show less cycle-to-cycle variation due to temperature variations. Advanced in-bowl injections show a stochastic behavior in the location of the first combustion, due to large variations in local fuel rich zones. For the double injection case the main injection cools…
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High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in a Light Duty Engine for Different Injection Strategies

Dantec Dynamics A/S-Hua Wang
Lund University-Zhenkan Wang, Slavey Tanov, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Alden
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
It has been proven that partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the capability of high combustion efficiency with low soot and NOx emissions, which meet the requirements of increasingly restricted emission regulations. In order to obtain more homogenous combustion and longer ignition delay in PPC, different fuel injection strategies were employed which could affect the fuel air mixing and control the combustion. In the present work, a light duty optical diesel engine was used to conduct high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) for single, double and triple injections with different timings. A quartz piston and a cylinder liner were installed in the Bowditch configuration to enable optical access. The geometry of the quartz piston crown is based on the standard diesel combustion chamber design for this commercial passenger car engine, including a re-entrant bowl shape. The severe image distortions caused by the optical piston shape are minimized through recordings of reference targets and an image dewarping algorithm. To the authors knowledge this is the first time the flow field inside such realistic re-entrant piston bowl has…
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Study of the Early Flame Development in a Spark-Ignited Lean Burn Four-Stroke Large Bore Gas Engine by Fuel Tracer PLIF

SAE International Journal of Engines

Lund Univ.-Rikard Wellander, Joakim Rosell, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Wartsila Finland Oy-Jeudi Duong, Jari Hyvonen
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1330
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In this work the pre- to main chamber ignition process is studied in a Wärtsilä 34SG spark-ignited lean burn four-stroke large bore optical engine (bore 340 mm) operating on natural gas. Unburnt and burnt gas regions in planar cross-sections of the combustion chamber are identified by means of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) from acetone seeded to the fuel. The emerging jets from the pre-chamber, the ignition process and early flame propagation are studied. Measurements reveal the presence of a significant temporal delay between the occurrence of a pressure difference across the pre-chamber holes and the appearance of hot burnt/burning gases at the nozzle exit. Variations in the delay affect the combustion timing and duration. The combustion rate in the pre-chamber does not influence the jet propagation speed, although it still has an effect on the overall combustion duration. PLIF images also show that there is mainly lean unburnt gas, originating from the main-chamber, that exit the pre-chamber in the initial phase of ignition, indicating incomplete mixing of the gases in the pre-chamber prior ignition.…
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Air-Entrainment in Wall-Jets Using SLIPI in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Lund University-Clement Chartier, Johan Sjoholm, Elias Kristensson, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Alden
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1718
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Mixing in wall-jets was investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine with several injector configurations and injection pressures. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was employed in non-reacting conditions in order to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratios in colliding wall-jets. A novel laser diagnostic technique, Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging (SLIPI), was successfully implemented in an optical engine and permits to differentiate LIF signal from multiply scattered light. It was used to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratio in colliding wall-jets under non-reacting conditions. Mixing phenomena in wall-jets were analyzed by comparing the equivalence ratio in the free part of the jet with that in the recirculation zone where two wall-jets collide. These results were then compared to φ predictions for free-jets. It was found that under the conditions tested, increased injection pressure did not increase mixing in the wall-jets. Comparisons with free-jet predictions further indicated that mixing in wall-jets is less effective than in free-jets for identical conditions and downstream distances. The confined nature of the wall-jet in the optical engine is suspected to be the reason for…
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Challenges for In-Cylinder High-Speed Two-Dimensional Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Soot

SAE International Journal of Engines

Combustion Engines, Lund Univ.-Ulf Aronsson, Clement Chartier, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Combustion Physics, Lund Univ.-Johan Sjöholm, Rikard Wellander, Henrik Bladh, Mattias Richter, Per-Erik Bengtsson, Marcus Alden
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1280
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) has traditionally been considered a straightforward and reliable optical diagnostic technique for in-cylinder soot measurements. As a result, it is nowadays even possible to buy turn-key LII measurement systems. During recent years, however, attention has been drawn to a number of unresolved challenges with LII. Many of these are relevant mostly for particle sizing using time-resolved LII, but also two-dimensional soot volume fraction measurements are affected, especially in regions with high soot concentrations typically found in combustion engines. In this work the focus is on the specific challenges involved in performing high-repetition rate measurements with LII in diesel engines. All the mentioned issues might not be possible to overcome but they should nevertheless be known and their potential impact should be considered. The measurements, which, to the authors' knowledge, are the first in-cylinder high-speed LII published to date, were made using a Multi-YAG laser system, capable of producing a burst of eight high-power laser pulses during one combustion event. A high-speed framing camera was used as detector in order to match the…
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Laser-Induced Phosphorescence and the Impact of Phosphor Coating Thickness on Crank-Angle Resolved Cylinder Wall Temperatures

SAE International Journal of Engines

Div. of Combustion Engines, Lund Institute of Technology-Peter Andersson, Martin Algotsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Div. of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology-Christoph Knappe, Mattias Richter, Johannes Linden, Marcus Alden
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1292
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
In order to further improve the energy conversion efficiency in reciprocating engines, detailed knowledge about the involved processes is required. One major loss source in internal combustion engines is heat loss through the cylinder walls. In order to increase the understanding of heat transfer processes and to validate and generate new heat transfer correlation models it is desirable, or even necessary, to have crank-angle resolved data on in-cylinder wall temperature.Laser-Induced Phosphorescence has proved to be a useful tool for surface thermometry also in such harsh environments as running engines. However, the ceramic structure of most phosphor coatings might introduce an error, due to its thermal insulation properties, when being exposed to rapidly changing temperatures. In this article the measurement technique is evaluated concerning the impact from the thickness of the phosphorescent layer on the measured temperature. Experiments with different layer thicknesses are performed both during motored and fired operation of a HCCI engine. The results reveal a need for caution when applying the technique for in-cylinder measurements.
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