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Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream, based on the distribution measured during the test. Predicted collection…
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Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of Glaze Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

Vantage Partners Limited-Sam Lee
Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center-Timothy G. Smith
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Aerodynamic assessment of icing effects on swept wings is an important component of a larger effort to improve three-dimensional icing simulation capabilities. An understanding of ice-shape geometric fidelity and Reynolds and Mach number effects on iced-wing aerodynamics is needed to guide the development and validation of ice-accretion simulation tools. To this end, wind-tunnel testing was carried out for 8.9% and 13.3% scale semispan wing models based upon the Common Research Model airplane configuration. Various levels of geometric fidelity of an artificial ice shape representing a realistic glaze-ice accretion on a swept wing were investigated. The highest fidelity artificial ice shape reproduced all of the three-dimensional features associated with the glaze ice accretion. The lowest fidelity artificial ice shapes were simple, spanwise-varying horn ice geometries intended to represent the maximum ice thickness on the wing upper surface. The results presented in this paper show that changes in Reynolds and Mach number have only a small effect on the iced-wing aerodynamics relative to the clean-wing configuration. Furthermore, the addition of grit roughness to some lower-fidelity artificial ice…
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Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

Vantage Partners Limited-Sam Lee
Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center-Timothy Smith
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations. This confirmed results from previous tests with other ice shapes that indicated the data from the low Reynolds number tests could be used to understand iced-swept-wing aerodynamics at high Reynolds number. This allows ice aerodynamics testing to be performed at low Reynolds number facilities…
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Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

Vantage Partners Limited-Sam Lee
Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center-Timothy Smith
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St. University wind tunnel provided a low-Reynolds number baseline study while the pressurized F1 facility produced data over a wide range of Reynolds and Mach numbers with the highest Reynolds number studied being approximately Re = 11.9×106. Past work focused on only three different fidelity variations for…
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Recent Advances in the LEWICE Icing Model

Vantage Partners Limited-William B. Wright
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Peter Struk, Gene Addy
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper will describe two recent modifications to the LEWICE software. The version described is under development and not ready for release. First, a capability for modeling ice crystals and mixed phase icing has been modified based on recent experimental data. Modifications have been made to the ice particle bouncing and erosion model. This capability has been added as part of a larger effort to model ice crystal ingestion in aircraft engines. Comparisons have been made to ice crystal ice accretions performed in the NRC Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). Second, modifications were made to the runback model based on data and observations from thermal scaling tests performed in the NRC Altitude Icing Tunnel. The runback model was modified to match film models used in the open literature. An empirical water shedding was also implemented. Comparisons were made to thermal deicing data taken at the NRC Altitude Icing Tunnel.
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Three Dimensional Simulation of Flow in an Axial Low Pressure Compressor at Engine Icing Operating Points

Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Joseph Veres, Colin Bidwell
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Three-dimensional simulations of the Honeywell ALF502 low pressure compressor (sometimes called a booster) using the NASA Glenn code GlennHT have been carried out. A total of eight operating points were investigated. These operating points are at, or near, points where engine icing has been determined to be likely. The results of this study were used, in a companion paper, for further analysis such as predicting collection efficiency of ice particles and ice growth rates at various locations in the compressor. In an effort to minimize computational effort, inviscid solutions with slip walls are produced. A mixing plane boundary condition is used between each blade row, resulting in convergence to steady state within each blade row. Comparisons of the results are made to other simplified analysis. An additional modification to the simulation process is also presented. At each mixing plane (located between blade rows) it is possible to introduce ad hoc adjustments to the flow properties. The justification for making adjustments will be discussed. At each mixing plane it is possible to bring the average conditions…
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Ice Particle Analysis of the Honeywell ALF502 Engine Booster

Vantage Partners Limited-David Rigby
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Colin Bidwell
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A flow and ice particle trajectory analysis was performed for the booster of the Honeywell ALF502 engine. The analysis focused on two closely related conditions one of which produced an icing event and another which did not during testing of the ALF502 engine in the Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The flow analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn GlennHT flow solver and the particle analysis was generated using the NASA Glenn LEWICE3D v3.63 ice accretion software. The inflow conditions for the two conditions were similar with the main differences being that the condition that produced the icing event was 6.8 K colder than the non-icing event case and the inflow ice water content (IWC) for the non-icing event case was 50% less than for the icing event case. The particle analysis, which considered sublimation, evaporation and phase change, was generated for a 5 micron ice particle with a sticky impact model and for a 24 micron median volume diameter (MVD), 7 bin ice particle distribution with a supercooled large droplet…
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Advanced Spacesuit Avionics Subsystem Integration Testing

Vantage Partners Limited-Nicholas Tollis, Andrew Jalics
NASA-Martin Bradish
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes the Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This paper covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies' to exchange messages and to perform audio tests of both inbound and outbound channels. This paper describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.
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