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Effect of Lubricant Oil on Particle Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Light-Duty Vehicle

The Lubrizol Corp.-Alexander Michlberger, Mike Sutton, Paul Vincent
Southwest Research Institute-Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek, Peter Morgan
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline direction injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by light-duty vehicle manufacturers in recent years to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. Particulate Matter (PM) mass emissions from current GDI engines are primarily composed of soot particles or black carbon with a small fraction (15% to 20%) of semi-volatile hydrocarbons generated from unburned/partially burned fuel and lubricating oil. Between 2017 and 2025, PM mass emissions regulations in the USA are expected to become progressively more stringent going down from current level of 6 mg/mile to 1 mg/mile in 2025. As PM emissions are reduced through soot reduction, lubricating oil derived semi-volatile PM is expected to become a bigger fraction of total PM mass emissions. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of lubricating oil on PM emissions from a modern light-duty vehicle equipped with a GDI engine without a GPF with a PM emission level near 1 mg/mile which is well below the current standard. Testing included two lubricating engine oils with differing physical and chemical properties - one…
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Farm Tractor Efficiency Gains through Optimized Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oils

The Lubrizol Corp.-Adam Stackpole, Alexander Michlberger, Paul Mardula
Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory-Roger Hoy, Justin Geyer, Douglas Triplett
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Modern agriculture has evolved dramatically over the past half century. To be profitable, farms need to significantly increase their crop yields, and thus there are amplified demands on farming equipment. Equipment duty cycles have been raised in scope and duration, as the required output of the agricultural industry to sustain a growing population has stimulated the need for further advances in effective productivity gains on the farm. The mainstay mechanical assistant to the farmer, the tractor, has also evolved with the changes in modern agriculture to meet the requirements of these newer tasks. Larger, more capable vehicles have been introduced to help farmers efficiently meet these demands. At the same time, the current generation of tractor diesel engine lubricants has facilitated high levels of performance in the agricultural equipment market for many years. This is a testament to the role modern lubricants play in productivity in such a critical industry. With a growing global population to feed, and government regulations requiring reduced emissions for off-highway (OH) equipment, it is important to become more efficient in…
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On-Road Monitoring of Low Speed Pre-Ignition

The Lubrizol Corp.-Alexander Michlberger, Mike Sutton
Southwest Research Institute-Michael Kocsis, Garrett Anderson, Adam Van Horn
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
To meet increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy regulations, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have recently developed and deployed small, high power density engines. Turbocharging, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) has enabled a rapid engine downsizing trend. While these turbocharged GDI (TGDI) engines have indeed allowed for better fuel economy in many light duty vehicles, TGDI technology has also led to some unintended consequences. The most notable of these is an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI is an uncontrolled combustion event that takes place prior to spark ignition, often resulting in knock, and has been known to cause catastrophic engine damage. LSPI propensity depends on a number of factors including engine design, calibration, fuel properties and engine oil formulation. Several engine tests have been developed within the industry to better understand the phenomenon of LSPI. While data from these tests have greatly increased the industry’s knowledge about LSPI, they may not accurately represent LSPI as it occurs while the vehicle is in actual service. This is because the industry…
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Understanding MTF Additive Effects on Synchroniser Friction - Part 2, Structure Performance Analysis

The Lubrizol Corp.-B. M. O'Connor, M. E. Huston, C. McFadden
Lubrizol Japan Limited-Y. Higuchi
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Specific frictional properties are essential to provide correct and pleasurable shifting in a manual transmission. Synchroniser rings are being manufactured from an increasingly wider range of materials, and it is important to understand synchroniser-additive interactions in order to develop tailored lubricants that provide the desired frictional performance. This paper describes a study of the interaction of various friction modifier additives with a range of synchroniser materials in order to better understand the potential to develop lubricants that provide optimal frictional performance across a wide range of manual transmission-synchroniser systems.
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Fuel Economy Durability - A Concept to be Considered for Motorcycle Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

The Lubrizol Corp.-Brent Dohner, Alex Michlberger, George Szappanos
Lubrizol Japan Ltd.-Ananda Gajanayake
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-32-0545
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Motorcycle manufacturers have recognized that highly friction modified passenger car oils can be deleterious to clutch performance, leading to clutch slippage. To address this issue, a JASO specification for four-stroke motorcycle oils was developed in 1999, categorizing oils into high friction oils termed JASO MA and low friction oils termed JASO MB. The high friction oils were preferred for most motorcycles where the engine oil also lubricates the clutch and gears. New motorcycle transmission technologies have increased the number of dry clutch applications which has led to an increased demand for JASO MB oils to improve fuel efficiency. While JASO MB oils contain friction modifiers to improve initial fuel economy, the motorcycle specifications have not addressed the fuel economy durability of motorcycle oils. This paper will investigate the fuel economy durability of JASO MB quality oil in various ways in order to determine if the fuel economy benefit is maintained throughout the time the oil spends in the engine.
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Development of Novel Friction Modifier Technology

The Lubrizol Corp.-Brent Dohner, John Pudelski, Jody Kocsis, Michio Tsukano, Ananda Gajanayake
Toyota Motor Corp.-Toyoharu Kaneko, Minoru Yamashita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0125
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Requirements to improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase worldwide. Lubricants can play a key role in improving fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications that require fuel economy improvements. A novel friction modifier technology has been developed to further improve vehicle fuel economy. This novel friction modifier technology which contains only N,O,C,H was found to perform extremely well in the European M111E-FE fuel economy test. Subsequently it was also evaluated and found to perform well in motorized friction torque tests conducted in Toyota 2ZZ and Toyota 1NZ engines.
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Understanding MTF Additive Effects on Synchroniser Friction

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

The Lubrizol Corp.-B. M. O'Connor, M. E. Huston, C. McFadden
Lubrizol Japan Limited-Y. Higuchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2121
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
Specific frictional properties are essential to provide correct and pleasurable shifting in a manual transmission. Synchroniser rings are being manufactured from an increasingly wider range of materials, and so it is important to understand synchroniser-additive interactions in order to develop tailored lubricants that provide the desired frictional performance. This paper describes a study of the interaction of various friction modifier additives with a range of synchroniser materials in order to better understand the potential to develop lubricants that provide optimal frictional performance across a wide range of manual transmission-synchroniser systems. This presentation will outline the results of testing fluids with a range of synchroniser materials and will be followed by a future paper that will describe details of the fluids and analysis of their interactions with the different synchroniser surfaces.
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Development of Novel Friction Modifier Technology Part 2: Vehicle Testing

The Lubrizol Corp.-Brent Dohner, Hidetomo Umehara
Toyota Motor Corp.-Toyoharu Kaneko, Minoru Yamashita
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
Requirements to reduce emissions and improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase, spurred on by agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. Lubricants can play a role in improving fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications worldwide that require fuel economy improvements. A novel friction modifier technology has been developed to further improve vehicle fuel economy. The development of this novel friction modifier technology which contains only N,O,C,H was previously published along with the initial demonstration of performance in motorized Toyota engines. In order to validate this performance in fired engine tests, oil was evaluated in a Toyota Corolla Fielder with a 1500 cc gasoline engine. Testing was conducted in the Japanese 10-15 and JC08 modes, as well as the European EC mode, and the US FTP mode. In addition, fuel economy durability testing was conducted in a Toyota Corolla with an 1800cc engine by evaluating the US FTP and Japanese 10-15 and JC08 modes after oil aging. Excellent fuel economy performance was observed in all tests.
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Impact of Viscosity Modifiers on Gear Oil Efficiency and Durability

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

The Lubrizol Corp.-Mark Baker, Brian O'Connor, Farrukh Qureshi, Michael Huston, Daniel Knapton
Lubrizol Limited-William R. S. Barton, James Payne
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2128
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper is part one of a longer term comparison of viscosity modifier behavior in modern automotive gear oil (AGO) fluids and the impact of these properties on fluid efficiency and durability. This first installment will compare the rheological properties, including EHD film thickness and traction coefficients, of the fluids across broad operating temperature, shear and load regimes and correlate these findings with rig efficiency testing.The effects of traction, EHD film thickness and high shear rheology on operating temperature are well documented and it is of particular interest to determine the extent to which different viscosity modifiers can beneficially impact these properties compared to a Brightstock-based SAE 80W90 grade fluid. The efficiency improvements of a VM would be for naught if it were not sufficiently shear stable and so comparisons are made between shear stable VM technologies.The final discussion introduces new tapered roller bearing shear test conditions that correlate more closely to fluid shear in the field than the current 20 h tapered roller bearing shear test, CEC L-45-A-99.
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New Components for Improving Antiwear Performance in Modern Engine Lubricants

The Lubrizol Corp.-Douglas T. Jayne, Matt D. Gieselman
Lubrizol Japan Ltd.-Kazuo Nishimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0623
Published 2010-09-29 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Fuel economy, emission control and enhanced durability are three key technical requirements that drive modern engine oil formulation. These drivers tend to constrain the use of conventional ash-containing molecules that ameliorate wear. However, durability must be maintained or even enhanced. New classes of multifunctional ash-less molecules are described that reduce wear and enable the use of less zinc dithiophosphate. Furthermore, synergy is described between the new molecules and ash-containing components such as Ca detergents. The mechanism of action of the molecules will be discussed.