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Deterministic Ethernet VPX 3U/6U Switches for Open Integrated Architectures

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke
TTTech North America Inc.-Perry Rucker
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
VPX, as a switched fabric, supports the design of advanced integrated systems using technologies such as deterministic Ethernet. Deterministic Ethernet can be used in backplane and backbone applications. In cases where functional interrelationships and Ethernet network bandwidth sharing is deterministic and all logical links among critical function have configurable quality of service with guaranteed timing, the complexity challenges in design of advanced integrated architectures can be much simpler to handle and mitigate. VPX switches in 3/6U format with ARINC664 and SAE AS6802 services enable deterministic integration of many critical functions hosted on common embedded computing and networking resources. Both ARINC664 (asynchronous real-time) and SAE AS6802 (synchronous hard real-time), as Layer 2 enhancements, do not affect existing Ethernet services. They are compliant with all standard Ethernet physical layers for backbone and backplane networks, including those described in VPX (VITA 46) and VITA 48. They are also compliant with higher OSI Layers 3-6, and can be easily used in design of open and generic integrated architectures using VPX standards. This enables the design of truly open and…
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Design and Verification for Complex Deterministic Ethernet Networks in IMA Systems

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Mirko Jakovljevic, Jan Radke
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Integrated modular architectures and IMA reduce the physical complexity of electronic architecture by integrating many functions on common embedded resources. As the reduction of physical complexity means that the embedded resources are shared by many functions, the logical complexity of system configuration, functional alignment and resource sharing increases significantly.Modern integrated embedded platforms are designed for parameter-based architecture design and integration. IMA is not only a set of platform components, networking and computing devices and configurable middleware and platform abstraction layers. Integrated Architectures and IMA require mature design and verification tools, and a well-defined design and integration methodology are required to avoid expensive and error-prone manual analyses and configuration tasks. Therefore, integrated architectures cannot be separated from design methodologies and processes.In this paper, the network and analysis tools for deterministic Ethernet networks are discussed and basic design requirements are outlined. Our objective is to present general perspective on total system design, with special focus on networking aspects, especially the integration of synchronous and asynchronous VLs.
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Model-Based Development of Distributed Embedded Real-Time Systems with the DECOS Tool-Chain

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Martin Schlager, Bernhard Leiner
Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC-Wolfgang Herzner, Rupert Schlick
Published 2007-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The increasing complexity of distributed embedded systems, as found today in airplanes or cars, becomes more and more a critical cost-factor for their development. Model-based approaches have recently demonstrated their potential for both improving and accelerating (software) development processes. Therefore, in the project DECOS1, which aims at improving system architectures and development of distributed safety-critical embedded systems, an integrated, model-driven tool-chain is established, accompanying the system development process from design to deployment. This paper gives an overview of this tool-chain and outlines important design decisions and features.
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Model-Based Design of Complex Integrated Systems for Synchronous Architectures

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Herbert Griebel
Esterel Technologies-Bernard Dion, Thierry Le Sergent, Bruno Martin
Published 2007-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Development and verification of systems for internal aircraft networks include multiple software layers. These layers are mainly the application-specific components, communication layers, redundancy management and other system services. Verification of these system layers in the early stages of the design process, before a physical network is available, and during the design process has become a critical need in order to reduce design costs and project risks. Time-Triggered Architectures (TTA) and SCADE are both well-established technologies and tools for building safety-critical embedded systems. Both are based on the synchronous paradigm; TTA for the communication infrastructure and distributed embedded computing, and SCADE for simulating and generating code for the application components. This paper describes a methodology to integrate a model-based SCADE design into a Time-Triggered Architecture (TTA) when physical distribution of fault-tolerant applications onto several electronic control units (ECUs) is required.
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Subsystem Design Using Time-Triggered Protocol (TTP): Key Aspects of Control System Application Reuse

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Roland Wolfig
Published 2007-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The Time-Triggered Architecture (TTA) and its software development environment for the Time-Triggered Protocol (TTP) provide a framework which allows the efficient development of distributed embedded applications. Separate development of system architecture and subsystems design, strict control of key system interfaces and separation of functional/logical from temporal behavior facilitate the reuse and seamless integration of electronic subsystems provided by different suppliers.TTA is an integrated platform solution which allows modular application development and certification up to the highest criticality classes with reuse of components. TTA principles improve the ability of system designers to significantly reduce system integration effort and obsolescence management costs. The time-triggered communication protocol TTP provides high performance and fault tolerance for the data transfer between distributed applications. Based on its well-defined interfaces and layering, it allows the handling of time-triggered and event-triggered messages, which enables the support of legacy systems.TTA, which represents a viable design philosophy for complex integrated systems, is suitable for setting up a fault-tolerant distributed architecture with properties of distributed Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA), as defined in the standard for certification…
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SIL2 and SIL3 ECU - Safety Controller for Off-Highway

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Christiana Seethaler, Lukas Silberbauer
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Electronically controlled safety-critical functions are becoming more and more prevalent in the off-highway industry (construction, agricultural or forestry machinery etc). Failures of such safety-critical functions may cause serious injury or death to people. Therefore, product safety and liability are becoming increasingly important for all OEMs in this industry. Currently, IEC 61508 [1] is considered the state-of-the-art standard for the development of safety-critical systems. Safety integrity levels (SIL) 2 and 3 are the most common levels required by off-highway applications.This paper shows a scalable architecture with a single ECU type that allows fulfilling both SIL2 and SIL3 requirements: A 1oo1D architecture (single ECU) will be used for systems with SIL2 requirements, a 1oo2D architecture for SIL3 requirements. In the 1oo2D variant two redundant ECUs exchange data over a time-triggered protocol. Due to this scalability the controller is suited for the majority of safety-critical applications in the off-highway industry.
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Integration of Predictable and Flexible In-Vehicle Communication using Time-Triggered Ethernet

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Manfred Prammer
Vienna University of Technology, Real-Time Systems Group-Astrit Ademaj, Hermann Kopetz, Petr Grillinger, Klaus Steinhammer
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel communication architecture denoted as time-triggered (TT) Ethernet that integrates real-time and non-real-time traffic into a single communication architecture. TT Ethernet supports applications of different levels of criticality, from simple data acquisition systems, to multimedia systems up to the most demanding fault-tolerant real-time control systems. The event triggered traffic in TT Ethernet is handled in conformance with the existing Ethernet standards of the IEEE. The architecture deploys a TT Ethernet switch, which distinguishes between event-triggered (ET) and time-triggered (TT) Ethernet traffic. Time-triggered traffic is transmitted with a predictable transmission delay, whereas event-triggered traffic is transmitted on a best-effort basis. The paper elaborates on the usage of TT Ethernet for in-vehicle communication in order to integrate different in-vehicle communication subsystems into a single communication architecture.
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Software Certification for a Time-Triggered Operating System

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Peter S. Groessinger
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the software certification activities carried out on TTP-OS to make this hard real-time, fault-tolerant operating system available for safety-critical applications in the automotive and aerospace industries requiring certification. The steps and measures, while specifically tailored to make an RTOS certifiable, were defined in accordance with the RTCA/DO-178B [1] guideline.The major single goal of these activities is to achieve traceability of requirements. Requirements are traced from the Software Requirements Document all the way down through the software lifecycle to the test-cases ensure consistency and accuracy of a mature software development approach. The steps and milestones along the lifecycle are described, offering an insight into the software certification efforts required.
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Virtual CAN Networks Over TTP - Integrating Legacy Systems Within the Time-Triggered Architecture

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Christian Eder, Reinhard Maier, Martin Schwarz, Georg Stöger
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
The next generation of cars will consist of a high number of networked electronic control units (ECUs) and significantly more complex software modules and control applications than today's models. Besides applications like engine control, air condition control and anti-theft systems, which are already available in today's cars, the first steps towards the introduction of safety-relevant steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire systems will be undertaken. Additionally, the demand for in-car entertainment and information systems (e.g. Internet terminals, video-streaming applications) will also increase. Since all these systems have conflicting requirements to the underlying network protocol (latency, predictability, throughput…), the straight-forward way would be to use autonomous busses and networks for every kind of distributed system within the car body (ultra-available safety-relevant systems, non-safety-relevant control systems, entertainment and media systems).This adds extra unwanted complexity and cabling overhead (and therefore cost) to the overall car electronics. So it is legitimate to think about alternative architectures, e.g. a common backbone network which can be used by all ECUs. Nevertheless, the integration to a single in-car network must not impair nor compromise the…
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Improving Availability of Time-Triggered Networks: The TTA StarCoupler

TTTech Computertechnik AG-Georg Stoeger, Alexandra Mueller, Sharon Kindleysides
TTChip Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH-Leonard Gagea
Published 2003-03-03 by SAE International in United States
The Time-Triggered Architecture (TTA) provides many state-of-the-art mechanisms to guarantee fault tolerance and highest system availability, in part due to the use of a fault-tolerant communication protocol. However, some failure modes are known that cannot be tolerated by a fault-tolerant communication protocol alone and that can threaten the availability of distributed systems. The possibility of these failure modes occurring in safety critical applications like steer-by-wire or brake-by-wire without mechanical backup is not acceptable.A dedicated device can be used to transform arbitrary node failures to failure modes tolerated by the Time-Triggered Protocol (TTP), eliminating failures that can lead to a loss of communication and thus to a loss of availability of the distributed system. In the star architecture, this functionality is concentrated in two redundant nodes (called TTA StarCouplers) placed in the center of a star configuration, providing highest system availability at lowest cost.The paper describes the functional blocks of the TTA StarCoupler. A description of the specific faults that are addressed by this architecture, i.e., “SOS faults”, “spatial proximity faults” and “babbling idiot faults”, is…
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