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A Human Factors Simulation Investigation of Driver Route Diversion and Alternate Route Selection Using In-Vehicle Navigation Systems

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-R. Wade Allen, Anthony C. Stein, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David Ziedman
JFT Assoc. Pacific Palisades, CA-Jaime F. Torres, Abolhassan Halati
Published 1991-10-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a human factors simulation study of the decision making behavior of drivers attempting to avoid nonrecurring congestion by diverting to alternate routes with the aid of in-vehicle navigation systems. This study is the first phase of a two part project in which the second phase will apply the driver behavior data to a simulation model analysis of traffic flow. The object of the driver behavior experiment was to compare the effect of various experimental navigation systems on driver route diversion and alternate route selection. The experimental navigation system configurations included three map based systems with varying amounts of situation information and a non map based route guidance system.The overall study results indicated that navigation system characteristics can have a significant effect on driver diversion behavior, with better systems allowing more anticipation of traffic congestion. Subject route familiarity, commercial driving experience and gender did not significantly affect the results. Alternate route analysis tended to confirm the main route diversion results, and also showed that a majority of drivers were willing to accept alternate…
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A Human Factors Study of Driver Reaction to In-Vehicle Navigation Systems

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-R. Wade Allen, Anthony C. Stein, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David Ziedman
JFT Associates Pacific Palisades, CA-Jaime F. Torres, Abolhassan Halati
Published 1991-08-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a laboratory simulation study of driver reaction to in-vehicle navigation systems. The study included a pre-test questionnaire on demographic background and commuting behavior, simulation testing of navigation decision making, and a post-test questionnaire on navigation behavior and reactions to in-vehicle navigation systems and the laboratory simulation. A total of 277 subjects, both male and female, were employed over a wide range of ages.Test subjects were assigned to one of four navigation system groups or a no-system control group for the purpose of comparing system performance. The simulation task required subjects to experience a commuting ‘drive’ on a Southern California freeway route and minimize trip time by diverting off the main route to avoid congestion. Subjects were given orientation and training on the simulation and their navigation system condition, and were motivated by rewards and penalties to minimize trip time.Simulation results showed that diversion decision making improved with increasing navigation system feedback containing congestion and route diversion information. Questionnaire results showed reasonable acceptance for use of in-vehicle systems for navigation, and a generally…
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Characteristics Influencing Ground Vehicle Lateral/Directional Dynamic Stability

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-R. Wade Allen, Henry T. Szostak, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David H. Klyde, Keith J. Owens
Published 1991-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Lateral/directional dynamics involve vehicle yawing, rolling and lateral translation motions and dynamic stability concerns directional behavior (i.e. spinout) and rollover. Previous research has considered field test and computer simulation methods and results concerning lateral/directional stability. This paper summarizes measurements and simulation analysis of a wide range of vehicles regarding directional and rollover stability. Directional stability is noted to be strongly influenced by lateral load transfer distribution (LTD) between the front and rear axles LTD influences tire side force saturation properties, and should be set up so that side forces at the rear axle do not saturate before the front axle under hard maneuvering conditions in order to avoid limit oversteer and spinout. Rollover stability is shown to interact with directional stability, and to be related to center of gravity location, track width and several other characteristics that influence these variables under hard maneuvering conditions.
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The Use of Simulation in Truck Safety Research, Driver Training and Proficiency Testing

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-R. Wade Allen, Anthony C. Stein
Published 1990-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Real time man-in-the-loop simulation can be used in a variety of research, testing and training roles where safety, efficiency and/or economy are important. Simulation can allow complete control and uniformity over driving conditions and permit analysis of a range of vehicle and driver behavior variables. Simulation complexity and fidelity requirements will vary depending on application requirements. This paper reviews past and current driving simulation development efforts and applications. Simulation requirements are assessed relative to various applications, including vehicle handling, driver behavior, training, licensing and fitness for duty testing.
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Performance Testing as a Determinant of Fitness-For-Duty

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-R. Wade Allen, Anthony C. Stein
Performance Factors, Inc. Alameda, CA-James C. Miller
Published 1990-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Performance testing provides an important complement to urine testing as a determinant of fitness for duty. Performance testing can be conducted immediately to screen out impaired workers before they undertake safety related job functions. Urine testing involves the expense and delay of laboratory testing, and results relate more to life style than current on-the-job performance capability. This paper reviews performance based testing and discusses the development and application of two performance based screening devices. One device has the capability of rapidly screening for impaired psychomotor performance given previous baseline data. The second device provides the potential for screening psychomotor and divided attention performance without prior experience or baseline data.
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Field Testing and Computer Simulation Analysis of Ground Vehicle Dynamic Stability

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-R. Wade Allen, Henry T. Szostak, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David H. Klyde
Published 1990-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper considers ground vehicle lateral/directional stability which is of primary concern in traffic safety. Lateral/directional dynamics involve yawing, rolling and lateral acceleration motions, and stability concerns include spinout and rollover. Lateral/directional dynamics are dominated by tire force response which depends on horizontal slip, camber angle and normal load. Vehicle limit maneuvering conditions can lead to tire force responses that result in vehicle spinout and rollover. This paper describes accident analysis, vehicle testing and computer simulation analysis designed to give insight into basic vehicle design variables that contribute to stability problems. Field test procedures and results for three vehicles are described. The field test results are used to validate a simulation model which is then analyzed under severe maneuvering conditions to shed light on dynamic stability issues.
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Practical Guidance for the Design of Controls and Displays for Single Pilot IFR

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-Roger H. Hoh
NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA-Hugh Bergeron, David Hinton
Published 1983-10-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper represents a first step in developing the criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in a single pilot IFR (SPIFR) environment. The research program presented herein is comprised of an analytical phase and an experimental phase. The analytical phase consisted of a review of fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a SPIFR pilot workload model. The rationale behind developing such a model was based on the concept that it is necessary to identify and quantify the most important components of pilot workload to guide the experimental phase of the research which consisted of an abbreviated flight test program. The purpose of the flight tests was to evaluate the workload associated with certain combinations of controls and displays in a flight environment. This was accomplished as a first step in building a data base for single pilot IFR controls and displays.
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Stability and Performance Analysis of Automobile Driver Steering Control

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-R. Wade Allen
Published 1982-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper reviews and expands previously published driver steering control models. The driver model is structured to control vehicle heading angle and lane position. Field test data are used to validate model structure. The closed-loop stability of the driver/vehicle system is analyzed using a two degree of freedom vehicle dynamics approximation. This analysis is used to develop constraints among the various driver model parameters and their dependence on vehicle characteristics. Driver/vehicle model approximations are also used to explore the effects of driver behavior on steering performance.
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A Downhill Grade Severity Rating System

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-Walter A. Johnson, Thomas T. Myers, Richard J. DiMarco, R. Wade Allen
Published 1981-11-01 by SAE International in United States
A Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) was developed as a means for reducing the incidence and severity of truck accidents on downgrades. The ultimate result is a roadside sign at the top of each hill. The sign is tailored to the individual hill and gives a recommended maximum speed (to be held constant for the entire grade descent) for each of several truck weight ranges. This concept represents a major step forward in terms of grade descent safety because it tells the driver what to do directly, rather than giving him information which still requires evaluation under different loading conditions.
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Considerations for Improvement of Conventional Motorcycle Brake Systems

Systems Technology, Inc. Hawthorne, CA-John W. Zellner
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration-Keith M. Klaber
Published 1981-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Factors involved in improving motorcycle brake systems and components are reviewed. Component and system functional requirements are reviewed from the standpoints of manual control factors, performance, and required operating conditions. Component response properties of example contemporary machines are presented. Results show that, for motorcycle hydraulic disc systems, hysteresis, wet disc response, and other response features related to manual control can be key factors.
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