Your Selections

Michigan Technological Univ
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Methods of Pegging Cylinder Pressure to Maximize Data Quality

Michigan Technological Univ-Darrell Robinette
Michigan Tech APS LABS-Jeremy Worm
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Engine cylinder pressure is traditionally measured with a piezo-electric pressure transducer, and as such, must be referenced or pegged to a known value. Frequently, the cylinder pressure is pegged to the pressure in the intake manifold plenum whereby the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) at the end of the intake stroke is measured and the cylinder pressure trace for the entire cycle is adjusted such that the cylinder pressure is set equal to the manifold pressure at the end of the intake stroke. However, any error in pegging induces an error in the cylinder pressure trace, which has an adverse effect on the entire combustion analysis. This research is focused on assessing the pegging error for several pegging methods across a wide range of engine operating conditions, and ultimately determining best practices to minimize error in pegging and the calculated combustion metrics. The study was conducted through 1D simulations using the commercially available GT-Power. The test matrix included variations of speed, load, intake runner length and intake valve timing. Five different pegging locations were compared, and…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

Michigan Technological Univ-Jeffrey Naber
FEV North America, Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik Koehler, FNU Dhanraj, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A novel approach to the Integration of Turbocompounding/WHR, Electrification and Supercharging technologies (ITES) to reduce fuel consumption in a medium heavy-duty diesel engine was previously published by FEV. This paper describes a modified approach to ITES to reduce fuel consumption on a heavy-duty diesel engine applied in a Class 8 tractor.The original implementation of the ITES incorporated a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In this new approach, the turbocompound unit connected to the sun gear of the planetary gear set has been replaced by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine expander. The secondary compressor and the electric motor-generator are connected to the ring gear and the carrier gear respectively. The ITES unit is equipped with dry clutch and band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the ORC expander, secondary compressor and electric motor-generator to the engine. This approach supports electrical integration of ORC expander when the turbine power output is low and mechanical/power-split integration when the turbine power output is high. At low engine speeds and high loads,…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Aging Estimation and Economic Analysis based on Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

Michigan Technological Univ-Bin Zhou, Jeffrey Burl
Bosch-Amir Rezaei
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents results on how the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) penalty factor effects Lithium ion battery aging. The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’. Vehicle simulation using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, six ECMS penalty factor values are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery state of charge trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The tradeoff between fuel cost and battery aging cost is explicitly displayed. In addition, the results provide insight into how driving behavior affects battery aging. The paper concludes with a discussion of the optimal balance between fuel cost and battery aging.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Fuel Economy Benefits of Integrating a Multi-Mode Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Engine in a Series Extended Range Electric Powertrain

Michigan Technological Univ-Ali Solouk, Kaushik Kannan, Hamit Solmaz, Paul Dice, Mehran Bidarvatan, Naga Nithin Teja Kondipati, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Ford Motor Company-Mohammad Shakiba-herfeh
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines are promising to improve powertrain fuel economy and reduce NOx and soot emissions by improving the in-cylinder combustion process. However, the narrow operating range of LTC engines limits the use of these engines in conventional powertrains. Extended range electric vehicles (EREVs), by decoupling the engine from the drivetrain, allows the engine to operate in a limited operating range; thus, EREVs offer an ideal platform for realizing the advantages of LTC engines. In this study, the global optimum fuel economy improvement of an experimentally developed 2-liter multi-mode LTC engine in a series EREV is investigated. The engine operation modes include Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), and conventional Spark Ignition (SI). The simulation results show in the city driving cycle, the single-mode HCCI and RCCI engines offer 12% and 9% fuel economy improvement, respectively over a single-mode SI engine in the EREV. These improvements increase to 13.1% and 10.3% in the highway driving cycles. In addition, the mode-switching fuel penalty is included in the optimization problem and the…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Michigan Technological Univ-Scott Miers
Argonne National Laboratory-James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2364
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance.A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location. The start of injection was varied under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the effects on the mixture formation process. In addition,…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of a Light Duty Diesel - Natural Gas Engine Operating in Conventional Diesel and RCCI Modes

Michigan Technological Univ-Ehsan Ansari, Behrouz Khoshbakht Irdmousa, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Jeffrey Naber
Sahand University of Technology-Kamran Poorghasemi
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a promising dual-fuel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) mode with significant potential for reducing NOx and particulate emissions while improving or maintaining thermal efficiency compared to Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) engines. The large reactivity difference between diesel and Natural Gas (NG) fuels provides a strong control variable for phasing and shaping combustion heat release. In this work, the Brake Thermal Efficiencies (BTE), emissions and combustion characteristics of a light duty 1.9L, four-cylinder diesel engine operating in single fuel diesel mode and in Diesel-NG RCCI mode are investigated and compared. The engine was operated at speeds of 1300 to 2500 RPM and loads of 1 to 7 bar BMEP. Operation was limited to 10 bar/deg Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) and 6% Coefficient of Variation (COV) of IMEP. The engine performance was investigated using a combination of RCCI control variables including NG/diesel Blend Ratio (BR), diesel injection fuel split, and Start of Injection (SOI) timing for diesel injections. The RCCI map was generated using different injection strategies (single and double injections)…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Proof-of-Concept Numerical Study for NOx Reduction in Diesel Engines Using Enriched Nitrogen and Enriched Oxygen

Michigan Technological Univ-Ahmed Abdul Moiz
Argonne National Laboratory-Kaushik Saha, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study. The numerical factors - initial swirl ratio, adaptive mesh refinement and thickness of enriched nitrogen and oxygen regions were also taken into account. Open-cycle combustion simulations were also carried out for specifically selected operating conditions to assess the potential performance…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Grid-Tied Single-Phase Bi-Directional PEV Charging/Discharging Control

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Michigan Technological Univ-Luting Wang, Chong Cao, Bo Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0159
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper studies the bi-directional power flow control between Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) and an electrical grid. A grid-tied charging system that enables both Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging/discharging is modeled using SimPowerSystems in Matlab/Simulink environment. A bi-directional AC-DC converter and a bi-directional DC-DC buck-boost converter are integrated to charge and discharge PEV batteries. For AC-DC converter control, Predictive Current Control (PCC) strategy is employed to enable grid current to reach a reference current after one modulation period. In addition, Phase Lock Loop (PLL) and a band-stop filter are designed to lock the grid voltage phase and reduce harmonics. Bi-directional power flow is realized by controlling the mode of the DC-DC converter. Simulation tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of this bi-directional charging system. The simulation results show that the integrated PCC, PLL, and band-stop filter can achieve fast dynamic response, low Total Harmonics Distortion (THD) of grid voltage and current, and unity power factor.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Sequential Model for Residual Affected HCCI with Variable Valve Timing

Michigan Technological Univ-Hrishikesh A. Saigaonkar, Mohammadreza Nazemi, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the effects of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) on the performance of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine are analyzed by developing a computationally efficient modeling approach for the HCCI engine cycle. A full engine cycle model called Sequential Model for Residual affected HCCI (SMRH) is developed using a multi zone thermo-kinetic combustion model coupled with flow dynamic models. The SMRH utilizes CHEMKIN®-PRO and GT-POWER® software along with an in-house exhaust gas flow model. Experimental data from a single cylinder HCCI engine is used to validate the model for different operating conditions. Validation results show a good agreement with experimental data for predicting combustion phasing, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), thermal efficiency as well as CO emission. The experimentally validated SMRH is then used to investigate the effects of intake and exhaust valve timing on residual affected HCCI engine combustion. A new Fuel Efficiency and Emission (FEE) index is defined to optimize engine performance. SMRH is used as a virtual engine test bed to generate FEE contour maps as a function of…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Extended Kalman Filter to Estimate NO, NO2, Hydrocarbon and Temperatures in a DOC during Active Regeneration and Under Steady State Conditions

Michigan Technological Univ-Harsha Shankar Surenahalli, Gordon Parker, John H. Johnson
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) are used on heavy duty diesel engine applications and experience large internal temperature variations from 150 to 600°C. The DOC oxidizes the CO and HC in the exhaust to CO2 and H2O and oxidizes NO to NO2. The oxidation reactions are functions of its internal temperatures. Hence, accurate estimation of internal temperatures is important both for onboard diagnostic and aftertreatment closed loop control strategies. This paper focuses on the development of a reduced order model and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) state estimator for a DOC. The reduced order model simulation results are compared to experimental data. This is important since the reduced order model is used in the EKF estimator to predict the CO, NO, NO2 and HC concentrations in the DOC and at the outlet. The estimator was exercised using transient drive cycle engine data. The closed loop EKF improves the temperature estimate inside the DOC compared to the open loop estimator. This is supported by the lower error in the estimated NO2 concentrations at the DOC outlet. The…
Annotation ability available