The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

CFD-Driven Preliminary Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Diffusive Combustion in Heavy-Duty Engines

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Nicola Giramondi, Mihai Mihaescu, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Anders Jäger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2192
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of renewable alcohols as fuels for heavy-duty engines may play a relevant role for the reduction of the carbon footprint of the transport sector. The direct injection of ethanol as main fuel and diesel as pilot fuel in the engine combustion chamber through two separate injectors may allow good combustion controllability over the entire engine operating range by targeting diffusive combustion. Closed-cycle combustion simulations have been carried out using AVL FIRE coupled to AVL TABKIN for the implementation of the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) chemistry reduction technique in order to investigate the influence of the injection system geometry and the injection strategy of pure ethanol and diesel fuel on ignition characteristics and combustion at different operating conditions.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Hanna Bernemyr, Botond Csontos
Scania CV AB-Henrik Hittig, Oscar Forsberg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2231
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The global demand for decreased emission from engines and increased efficiency drives manufactures to develop more advanced fuel injection systems. Today's compression-ignited engines use common rail systems with high injection pressures and fuel injector nozzles with small orifice diameters. These systems are highly sensitive to small changes in orifice diameters since these could lead to deteriorations in spray characteristics, thus reducing engine performance and increasing emissions. Phenomena that could create problems include nozzle fouling caused by metal carboxylates or biofuels. The problems increase with extended use of biofuels. This paper reports on an experimental study of nozzle hole fouling performed on a single-cylinder engine. The aim was to identify if the solubility of the fuel has an effect on deposit build-up and, thus, the reduction in fuelling with associated torque loss, and if there is a probability of regenerating the contaminated injectors. Additionally, the influence of the nozzle geometry was tested by using injectors of various designs. In the experiments, high-load engine operation was used to create the effect of fouling in the presence of…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Performance Analysis of Volumetric Expanders in Heavy-Duty Truck Waste Heat Recovery

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Sandhya Thantla, Jens Fridh, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Jonas Aspfors
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2266
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
With increasing demands to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, it is necessary to recover waste heat from modern Heavy Duty (HD) truck engines. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been acknowledged as one of the most effective systems for Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) due to its simplicity, reliability and improved overall efficiency. The expander and working fluid used in ORC WHR greatly impact the overall performance of an integrated engine and WHR system. This paper presents the effects of volumetric expanders on the ORC WHR system of a long haulage HD truck engine at a steady-state engine operating point chosen from a real-time road data. Performance of a long haulage HD truck engine is analyzed, based on the choice of three volumetric expanders for its WHR system, using their actual performance values. The expanders are: an oil-free open-drive scroll, a hermetic scroll and an axial piston expander with working fluids R123, R245fa and ethanol, respectively. Performance of the engine that accommodates the WHR system, with each expander and working fluid combination, is assessed based on…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Impact of Dynamic Exhaust Valve Modelling

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Ted Holmberg, Andreas Cronhjort
Scania CV AB-Ola Stenlåås
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2346
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A method developed in SAE 2019-01-0058 to correct for deviations from quasi-steady exhaust valve flow is implemented on a single-cylinder GT-Power model and the effects on pumping work and blowdown pulse characteristics are investigated. The valve flow area is always reduced compared to the reference quasi-steady case. It decreases with higher pressure ratios over the valve and increases with higher engines speeds. The reduced flow area increases pumping work with load and engine speed, though primarily with engine speed. The magnitude of the blowdown pulse is reduced and the peak is shifted to a later crank angle.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Numerical Investigation of Increasing Turbulence through Piston Geometries on Knock Reduction in Heavy Duty Spark Ignition Engines

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Senthil Krishnan Mahendar, Nicola Giramondi, Varun Venkataraman, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2302
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Knock in heavy duty (HD) spark ignition (SI) engines is exacerbated by a large bore diameter and a higher flame travel distance. An increase in turbulence close to TDC can improve combustion speed and reduce knock through low residence time for end gas auto-ignition. Since HD SI engines are usually derived from diesel engines, it is common to have a swirl motion that does not dissipate into turbulence. To increase flame speed and limit knock, squish can be used to produce turbulence close to TDC. In this study, two different piston bowl geometries are examined: the re-entrant and quartette. The influence of squish area on turbulence production by these piston geometries were investigated using motored simulations in AVL FIRE. The effect of increased turbulence on knock reduction was analyzed using a calibrated 1D GT-Power model of a HD SI engine and the performance improvement was estimated. The effect of clearance height and input swirl level on turbulence was studied for both piston geometries to determine their sensitivity. A lower squish area quartette piston provided the…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Hanna Bernemyr, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Oscar Forsberg, Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Fuel filters serve as a safety belt for modern compression ignition engines. To meet the requirements from environmental regulations these engines use the common rail injection system, which is highly susceptible to contamination from the fuel. Furthermore, the public awareness towards global warming is raising the need for renewable fuels such as biodiesel. An increased fuel variety brings a higher requirement for fuel filters as well. To better understand the process of filtration, awareness of the different possible contaminants from the field is needed. This study used several chemical characterization techniques to examine the deposits from plugged fuel filters collected from the field. The vehicle was run with a biodiesel blend available on the market. The characterization techniques included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) joined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and lastly thermal gravimetric analyzer combined with FTIR and a GC-MS (TGA/FTIR/GC-MS). In addition the remaining ash from TGA was measured in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Deposits were scraped from the used filter, and prepared for the different…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Heavy-Duty Engine Intake Manifold Pressure Virtual Sensor

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Andreas Cronhjort
Scania CV AB-Sotirios Tsironas, Ola Stenlaas, Magnus Apell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasing demands for more efficient engines and stricter legislations on exhaust emissions require more accurate control of the engine operating parameters. Engine control is based on sensors monitoring the condition of the engine. Numerous sensors, in a complex control context, increase the complexity, the fragility and the cost of the system. An alternative to physical sensors are virtual sensors, observers used to monitor parameters of the engine thus reducing both the fragility and the production cost but with a slight increase of the complexity. In the current paper a virtual intake manifold cylinder port pressure sensor is presented. The virtual sensor is based on a compressible flow model and on the pressure signal of the intake manifold pressure sensor. It uses the linearized pressure coefficient approach to keep vital performance behaviors while still conserving calibration effort and embedded system memory. The virtual sensor approach is evaluated from the perspectives of accuracy and robustness. The design and evaluation of the virtual sensor are based on a heavy-duty diesel engine experiment series. The virtual sensor provides promising…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Analyzing the Limitations of the Rider and Electric Motorcycle at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb Race

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Björn Möller
Brunel University-Koen Matthys
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a post-race analysis of team KOMMIT EVT’s electric motorcycle data collected during the 2016 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC). The motorcycle consumed approximately 4 kWh of battery energy with an average and maximum speed of 107 km/h and 149 km/h, respectively. It was the second fastest electric motorcycle with a finishing time of 11:10.480. Data was logged of the motorcycle’s speed, acceleration, motor speed, power, currents, voltages, temperatures, throttle position, GPS position, rider’s heart rate and the ambient environment (air temperature, pressure and humidity). The data was used to understand the following factors that may have prevented a faster time: physical fitness of the rider, thermal limits of the motor and controller, available battery energy and the sprocket ratio between the motor and rear wheel. Even though the rider’s heart rate implied a vigorous exercise intensity level, throttle values indicated that the rider wanted to go faster ~33% of the time. The motor reached a steady-state temperature that was approximately 30°C below the maximum allowable temperature and thus could have handled…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Test Rig for Evaluating Thermal Cyclic Life and Effectiveness of Thermal Barrier Coatings inside Exhaust Manifolds

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Ulf Olofsson
Scania CV AB-Anders Thibblin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) may be used on the inner surfaces of exhaust manifolds in heavy-duty diesel engines to improve the fuel efficiency and prolong the life of the component. The coatings need to have a long thermal cyclic life and also be able to reduce the temperature in the substrate material. A lower temperature of the substrate material reduces the oxidation rate and has a positive influence on the thermo-mechanical fatigue life. A test rig for evaluating these properties for several different coatings simultaneously in the correct environment was developed and tested for two different TBCs and one oxidation-resistant coating. Exhausts were redirected from a diesel engine and led through a series of coated pipes. These pipes were thermally cycled by alternating the temperature of the exhausts. Initial damage in the form of cracks within the top coats of the TBCs was found after cycling 150 times between 50°C and 530°C. Temperature calculations showed that, besides evaluating the thermal cyclic life, the test method has the potential to provide a quick ranking of coating…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available