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Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System (CLASS)

Ford Motor Co.-Alan James Banks
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System is a composite rear suspension knuckle/tieblade consisting of UD prepreg (epoxy resin), SMC (vinylester resin) carbon fibre and a steel insert to reduce the weight of the component by 35% and reduce Co2. The compression moulding manufacturing process and CAE optimisation are unique and ground-breaking for this product and are designed to allow high volume manufacture of approx. 30,000 vehicles per year. The manufacturing techniques employed allow for multi-material construction within a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the design lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. It is a well-known fact that the performance of a composite part is primarily determined by the way it is manufactured. The design team were able to use their extensive knowledge of material behaviour and state of the art manufacturing cells to enable a component that meets the required functional requirements. The CAE optimisation techniques developed during the project made a significant contribution to the project by…
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A Resonant Capacitive Coupling WPT-Based Method to Power and Monitor Seat Belt Buckle Switch Status in Removable and Interchangeable Seats

Ford Motor Co.-Mark Cuddihy
Solace Power Inc.-Brian Pottle
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we present an intelligent and wireless subsystem for powering and communicating with three sets of seat belt buckle sensors that are each installed on removable and interchangeable automobile seating. As automobile intelligence systems advance, a logical step is for the driver’s dashboard to display seat belt buckle indicators for rear seating in addition to the front seating. The problem encountered is that removable and interchangeable automobile seating outfitted with wired power and data links are inherently less reliable than rigidly fixed seating, as there is a risk of damage to the detachable power and data connectors throughout end-user seating removal/re-installation cycles. The present study tackles this issue through outfitting three removable and interchangeable rear seat assemblies with resonant capacitive coupling wireless power transfer as to power each rear seat across a variable gap between the interior paneling and that side of the seat closest to the interior paneling. A fundamental design challenge this system presented was the need to develop a rugged method to account for different sizes of seating, and hence…
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Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Richard C. Peterson
Ford Motor Co.-Eric Kurtz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity. As a result, errors in near-TDC swirl ratio, vortex structure and turbulence availability were seen when employing sector meshing, even if a 360-degree sector, with direct IVC flow…
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A Fuzzy Inference System for Understeer/Oversteer Detection Towards Model-Free Stability Control

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Benjamin Hirche
Clemson Univ.-Beshah Ayalew
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1630
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a soft computing approach to a model-free vehicle stability control (VSC) algorithm is presented. The objective is to create a fuzzy inference system (FIS) that is robust enough to operate in a multitude of vehicle conditions (load, tire wear, alignment), and road conditions while at the same time providing optimal vehicle stability by detecting and minimizing loss of traction. In this approach, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is generated using previously collected data to train and optimize the performance of the fuzzy logic VSC algorithm. This paper outlines the FIS detection algorithm and its benefits over a model-based approach. The performance of the FIS-based VSC is evaluated via a co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim model of the vehicle under various road and load conditions. The results showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of accurately indicating unstable vehicle behavior for two different types of vehicles (SUV and Sedan). The algorithm can do this without any significant parameter adjustment, illustrating its robustness against the considered uncertainty.
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A Model-Free Stability Control Design Scheme with Active Steering Actuator Sets

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Benjamin Hirche
Clemson Univ.-Beshah Ayalew
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1655
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the application of a proposed fuzzy inference system as part of a stability control design scheme implemented with active steering actuator sets. The fuzzy inference system is used to detect the level of overseer/understeer at the high level and a speed-adaptive activation module determines whether an active front steering, active rear steering, or active 4 wheel steering is suited to improve vehicle handling stability. The resulting model-free system is capable of minimizing the amount of model calibration during the vehicle stability control development process as well as improving vehicle performance and stability over a wide range of vehicle and road conditions. A simulation study will be presented that evaluates the proposed scheme and compares the effectiveness of active front steer (AFS) and active rear steer (ARS) in enhancing the vehicle performance. Both time and frequency domain results are presented.
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Quantifying Hands-Free Call Quality in an Automobile

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Scott Amman, Francois Charette, Paul Nicastri, John Huber, Brigitte Richardson, Gint Puskorius, Yuksel Gur, Anthony Cooprider
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2335
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Hands-free phone use is the most utilized use case for vehicles equipped with infotainment systems with external microphones that support connection to phones and implement speech recognition. Critically then, achieving hands-free phone call quality in a vehicle is problematic due to the extremely noisy nature of the vehicle environment. Noise generated by wind, mechanical and structural, tire to road, passengers, engine/exhaust, HVAC air pressure and flow are all significant contributors and sources of noise. Other factors influencing the quality of the phone call include microphone placement, cabin acoustics, seat position of the talker, noise reduction of the hands-free system, etc. This paper describes the work done to develop procedures and metrics to quantify the effects that influence the hands-free phone call quality. It will be shown that a listening study of using 49 evaluators, indicated that the ETSI EG 202 396-3EG (VoIP Standard) for SMOS (Speech Mean Opinion Score) and NMOS (Noise Mean Opinion Score) correlates better than the ETSI TS 103 106 (Mobile Standard) for speech and noise ratings when quantifying the quality of…
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Sound Package Development for Lightweight Vehicle Design using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA)

Ford Motor Co.-Yuksel Gur, David Wagner
Autoneum North America Inc.-Jian Pan
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Lightweighting of vehicle panels enclosing vehicle cabin causes NVH degradation since engine, road, and wind noise acoustic sources propagate to the vehicle interior through these panels. In order to reduce this NVH degradation, there is a need to develop new NVH sound package materials and designs for use in lightweight vehicle design.Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model can be an effective CAE design tool to develop NVH sound packages for use in lightweight vehicle design. Using SEA can help engineers recover the NVH deficiency created due to sheet metal lightweighting actions.Full vehicle SEA model was developed to evaluate the high frequency NVH performance of “Vehicle A” in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 10 kHz. This correlated SEA model was used for the vehicle sound package optimization studies. Full vehicle level NVH laboratory tests for engine and tire patch noise reduction were also conducted to demonstrate the performance of sound package designs on “Vehicle A”.In this paper, SEA simulation results for vehicle level as well as dash subsystem level and comparison to test data are…
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A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

Ford Motor Co.-Kalyan Chakravarthy Addepalli, Natalie Remisoski, Anthony Sleath, Shyiping Liu
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage. This paper bridges this gap in the literature by developing a spring model at the conceptual phase using the multibody dynamics (MBD) tool Adams based on…
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Prediction of Automotive Air-Handling System Flow Noise Sound Quality Using Sub-System Measurements

Ford Motor Co.-Curtis Jones, Zhengyu Liu, Suhas Venkatappa, James Hurd
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the methodology of predicting vehicle level automotive air-handling system air-rush noise sound quality (SQ) using the sub-system level measurement. Measurement setup in both vehicle level and sub-system levels are described. To assess the air-rush noise SQ, both 1/3 octave band sound pressure level (SPL) and overall Zwicker's loudness are used. The “Sound Quality Correlation Functions (SQCF)” between sub-system level and vehicle level are developed for the specified climate control modes and vehicle segment defined by J.D. Power & Associates, while the Zwicker's loudness is calculated using the un-weighted predicted 1/3 octave band SPL. The predicting models are demonstrated in very good agreement with the measured data. The methodology is applied to the development of sub-system SQ requirement for upfront delivery of the optimum design to meet global customer satisfaction
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Flow-Induced Whistle in the Joint of Thermal Expansion Valve and Suction Tube in Automotive Refrigerant System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Manfred Koberstein, Zhengyu Liu, Curtis Jones, Suhas Venkatappa
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2275
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In the thermal expansion valve (TXV) refrigerant system, transient high-pitched whistle around 6.18 kHz is often perceived following air-conditioning (A/C) compressor engagements when driving at higher vehicle speed or during vehicle acceleration, especially when system equipped with the high-efficiency compressor or variable displacement compressor. The objectives of this paper are to conduct the noise source identification, investigate the key factors affecting the whistle excitation, and understand the mechanism of the whistle generation. The mechanism is hypothesized that the whistle is generated from the flow/acoustic excitation of the turbulent flow past the shallow cavity, reinforced by the acoustic/structural coupling between the tube structural and the transverse acoustic modes, and then transmitted to evaporator. To verify the mechanism, the transverse acoustic mode frequency is calculated and it is coincided to the one from measurement. In the end, the recommendations for preventing the system from having whistle are also provided.
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