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Analysis of Spray Feature Injected by Tailpipe Injector for Aftertreatment of Diesel Engine Emissions

Doshisha Univ.-Jun Kaniyu, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura
Japan Automobile Research Institute-Takaaki Kitamura
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model. The secondary fuel injection is classified into free spray, impingement spray, evaporation of liquid-film, and HC concentration distribution. So it is difficult to predict phenomena because each phenomenon is complicatedly involved. Therefore, it is necessary that…
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Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Doshisha Univ.-Akihiro Niwa, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura
Japan Automobile Research Institute-Takaaki Kitamura
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2375
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera. NH3 concentration is measured at 13 points of the cross section of the tail-pipe…
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Natural Frequency Analysis of Tire Vibration Using a Thin Cylindrical Shell Model

Doshisha Univ.-Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Akihito Ito
Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd.-Kensuke Bito
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Early studies on the tire vibration characteristics of road noise focused on radial modes of vibration because these modes are dominant in vertical spindle force. However, recent studies of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) prediction have suggested that tire modeling not only of radial modes, but also of lateral vibration, including lateral translational and lateral bending modes, affect interior noise. Thus, it is important to construct tire dynamic models with few degrees of freedom for whole-vehicle analysis of NVH performance. Existing tire dynamics model can't express tire lateral vibrations.This paper presents a new approach for tire vibration analysis below 200Hz, and a formula for tire natural frequencies. First, a tire dynamic model is developed based on the thin cylindrical shell theory. Kinetic and potential energies are derived. Mode shape function is also derived by the assumption of inextensility in the neutral of the tread ring. The formulas of natural frequencies are derived from these relation expressions using Rayleigh's method. Second, impact tests for tires are performed for validation of the proposal theory. Results show that…
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Digging Trajectory Optimization by Soil Models and Dynamics Models of Excavator

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Doshisha Univ.-Tatsuya Yoshida, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, ZhongMou Jiang
Caterpillar Japan Ltd.-Yozo Nakamoto
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2411
Published 2013-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Researches for automated construction machinery have been conducted for labor-saving, improved work efficiency and worker's safety, where a tracking control function was proposed as one of the key control system strategies for highly automated productive hydraulic excavators. An optimized digging trajectory that assures as much soils scooped as possible and less energy consumption is critical for an automated hydraulic excavator to improve work efficiency.Simulation models that we used to seek an optimized digging trajectory in this study consist of soil models and front linkage models of a hydraulic excavator. We developed two types of soil models. One is called wedge models used to calculate reaction forces from soils acting on a bucket during digging operation, based on the earth pressure theory. The other is called Distinct Element Method (DEM) model used to analyze soil behaviors and estimate amounts of soils scooped and reaction forces quantitatively. In this simulation, we calculated generative forces and energy consumptions of hydraulic cylinders by solving inverse dynamics of the linkages.Firstly, we used wedge models that enable extremely high-speed calculations, to…
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Vibration Behavior Analysis of Tire Bending Mode Exciting Lateral Axial Forces

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Doshisha Univ.-Masami Matsubara, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Yuya Hirano
Toyo Tire & Rubber Co. Ltd.-Kensuke Bito
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1911
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
The demand to reduce noise in the passenger cars is increasing. Tire vibration characteristics must be considered when studying road noise because of the strong interaction between tire vibration characteristics and interior car noise. Car manufacturers are keenly interested in studies on the prediction of NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance, including viewing tires as substructure. Recently, studies have illustrated the effect that tire lateral bending mode have has on road noise, while most past studies of tire vibration focused on the circumference mode, which excited the vertical spindle force. Therefore, further study of tire lateral bending mode is necessary.Modeling of the tire lateral bending mode is described in this paper. First, lateral spindle force is measured under tire rolling conditions. Second, experimental modal analysis is performed to grasp tire lateral bending mode. Finally, a tire vibration model is built using the cylindrical shell theory.
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Power Transmitting Properties of CVT Using Dry Hybrid V-Belt with Protuberant Tension Member on Contact Surfaces of Blocks~It's Effect with Respect to Speed Ratio

Doshisha Univ.-Hirotoshi Kawakami, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii
Bando Chemical Industries, Ltd.-Hiroyuki Sakanaka, Ryuichi Kido
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0544
Published 2012-10-03 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of protuberance on the power transmitting properties of the CVT with dry hybrid V-belt under several conditions of speed ratio. The power transmitting properties were examined under three conditions of speed ratio (i=0.5, 1.0 and 2.0) by using three type belts in which the height of the protuberance was 0, 0.06 and 0.09 mm, respectively. Both pulley thrusts on driving and driven pulley and contraction force were measured by using load cells. Rotating speeds of both pulley shafts and the torque to both pulleys were measured by speed pickups and torque meters, respectively. To evaluate the power transmitting properties of the CVT, thrust ratio, conversion ratio, transmitting efficiency and slip ratio were investigated. It was found that the highest maximum thrust ratio, conversion ratio, transmitting efficiency and allowable driving input torque were obtained when protuberant tension member was used with 0.09 mm of height, respectively. In any conditions of speed ratio, applying the protuberance on the side sliding surfaces was effective to improve the power…
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Study on Improving Accuracy of Experimental Engine Model with Appling Physical Theories

Doshisha Univ.-Shinya Okamoto, Yuki Shimizu, Masashi Matsumoto, Yuya Tanaka, Jiro Senda
Honda R&D-Yasutaka Kitamura, Hiroyuki Yuasa, Akira Kato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0344
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The recent engine equipped with various devices such as variable nozzle turbocharger, EGR or DPF can satisfy environmental regulations. However, introduction of many technologies causes ECU parameters to increase and it makes engine system complicated, which makes difficulties of precise ECU setting. For that reason, calibration method based on statistic model made with experimental data is taken notice. The objective of this study is construction of high robustness and high quality plant models which contain physical concepts such as extended Zeldovich mechanism or soot formation models. And it is shown that constructed models have possibilities for predicting response robustly and accurately.
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Posture and Size Estimation of Moving Object with In-Vehicle Multilayer Lidar

Doshisha Univ.-Masafumi Hashimoto, Satoshi Yamamoto, Kazuki Taki
Kanazawa Univ.-Naoki Suganuma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0355
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper presents a method of posture and size estimations of moving objects with in-vehicle multilayer lidar. Moving objects are detected based on a 2D occupancy grid method from the lidar image, and they are classified into pedestrians or vehicles based on their estimated velocities. Matching of tracked objects and measurement clusters related to the moving objects are achieved via a rule-based data association. The postures (position and velocity) of the moving objects are estimated by Kalman filter, and their sizes are estimated based on volume of the associated measurement cluster. The experimental results in urban city environments validate the proposed method.
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Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions of a CI Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

Doshisha Univ.-Jiro Senda
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hiroki Maekawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Satoshi Kato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0339
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel were evaluated for ranges of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration. Fuels used were mixtures of a gasoline-like component, i-octane, and diesel fuel-like component, n-tridecane, so that the effects of the difference in chemistry and volatility were investigated. The experimental study performed in a CI engine and the numerical analysis using multi-component fuel model demonstrated that the dual-component fuel reduced pressure rise rate due to the difference in the vapor formation rate between two components which have the different reactivity. Furthermore, the experimental results showed that the dual-component fuel achieves low NOx and soot combustion without suffering from penalty of thermal efficiency.
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Tire Vibration Analysis for Radial Direction on a Loaded Condition

Doshisha Univ.-Masami Matsubara, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Yuya Hirano, Fumiya Nakamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0094
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Road noise is one of the main vehicle interior noises. It is necessary to reveal the vibration characteristics of a rolling tire. Tire vibration has complex behavior due to tire contact with road and rolling. In this paper, we focus on the effect of contact patch restriction which influences the tire vibration characteristics. First, experimental modal analysis is performed on contact and non-contact with road for perceiving natural frequency and modal shape. Second, we study the factor of changing tire vibration characteristics between contact and non-contact using tire model. Finally, it is found that modal shapes change due to contact patch restriction.