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Model Based Control of Synchronizers for Reducing Impacts during Sleeve to Gear Engagement

Chalmers University of Technology-Anders Grauers
Chalmers University of Technology/ CEVT AB-Muddassar Zahid Piracha
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a model based control strategy aimed to reduce noise and wear during gearshifts in conventional and hybrid Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCT and DCTH) and Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT). The control strategy is based on a newly developed dog teeth position sensor layout at China Euro Vehicle Technology AB (CEVT), a detailed simulation model for gear engagement and already existing speed sensors in the transmission. The details of dog teeth position sensor and simulation model are also presented in this paper. During gear shifting, noise is generated because of impacts between the sleeve teeth and the idler gear dog teeth after speed synchronization. Besides noise, these impacts are also responsible for delaying the completion of shift and contribute to wear in the dog teeth, hence reducing the lifespan of the transmission. The simulation model for gear engagement can simulate these impacts. Based on the simulation model and optimal control theory, an ideal dog teeth position trajectory is formulated that avoids the impact between sleeve and idler gear dog teeth, before the start of…
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Particulate Emissions in a GDI with an Upstream Fuel Source

Chalmers University of Technology-Sreelekha Etikyala, Lucien Koopmans, Petter Dahlander
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Public health risk and resulting stringent emission regulations for internal combustion engines pose a need for solutions to reduce particle emissions (PN). Current PN control approaches include increasing fuel injection pressure, optimizing spray targeting, multiple injection strategies, and the use of tumble flaps together with gasoline particulate filters (GPF).Experiments were performed using a single-cylinder spark-ignited GDI engine equipped with a custom inlet manifold and a port fuel injector located 500 mm upstream. Particulate emissions were measured during stationary medium/high load operation to evaluate the effect of varying the mass split between the direct and upstream injectors. Mixing quality is improved substantially by upstream injection and can thus be controlled by altering the mass split between the injectors. Additional particulate measurements were performed using a thermodenuder and a catalyst to remove major part of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from raw emissions. This made it possible to determine particle numbers (PN) both raw emissions and solid particulates, and the size distribution of the solid particulate emissions.Upstream fuel source was found to reduce PN emissions by almost…
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Uncertainty Quantification of Flow Uniformity Measurements in a Slotted Wall Wind Tunnel

Chalmers University of Technology-Emil Ljungskog, Simone Sebben
Volvo Car Corporation-Alexander Broniewicz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The need for a more complete understanding of the flow behavior in aerodynamic wind tunnels has increased as they have become vital tools not only for vehicle development, but also for vehicle certification. One important aspect of the behavior is the empty test section flow, which in a conventional tunnel should be as uniform as possible. In order to assess the uniformity and ensure consistent behavior over time, accurate measurements need to be performed regularly. Furthermore, the uncertainties and errors of the measurements need to be minimized in order to resolve small non-uniformities. In this work, the quantification of the measurement uncertainties from the full measurement chain of the new flow uniformity measurement rig for the Volvo Cars aerodynamic wind tunnel is presented. The simulation based method used to account for flow interference of the probe mount is also discussed. The flow measurement rig is custom made to facilitate fast and accurate measurements with low interference. The cost is minimized by using standard off-the-shelf five hole probes and facility installed pressure measurement instrumentation, which are…
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The Effects of Wheel Design on the Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Chalmers University of Technology-Adam Brandt, Michael Bolzon
Volvo Car Corporation-Henrik Berg, Linda Josefsson
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0662
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Approximately 25 % of a passenger vehicle’s aerodynamic drag comes directly or indirectly from its wheels, indicating that the rim geometry is highly relevant for increasing the vehicle’s overall energy efficiency. An extensive experimental study is presented where a parametric model of the rim design was developed, and statistical methods were employed to isolate the aerodynamic effects of certain geometric rim parameters. In addition to wind tunnel force measurements, this study employed the flowfield measurement techniques of wake surveys, wheelhouse pressure measurements, and base pressure measurements to investigate and explain the most important parameters’ effects on the flowfield. In addition, a numerical model of the vehicle with various rim geometries was developed and used to further elucidate the effects of certain geometric parameters on the flow field. The results showed that the most important parameter was the coverage area, and it was found to have a linear effect on the aerodynamic drag. Interestingly, parameters associated with the outer radial region of wheel (rim cover) were also found to be significant, along with the wheel depth…
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48V Mild-Hybrid Architecture Types, Fuels and Power Levels Needed to Achieve 75g CO2/km

Chalmers University of Technology-Mindaugas Melaika, Sarp Mamikoglu, Petter Dahlander
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
48V mild hybrid powertrains are promising technologies for cost-effective compliance with future CO2 emissions standards. Current 48V powertrains with integrated belt starter generators (P0) with downsized engines achieve CO2 emissions of 95 g/km in the NEDC. However, to reach 75 g/km, it may be necessary to combine new 48V powertrain architectures with alternative fuels. Therefore, this paper compares CO2 emissions from different 48V powertrain architectures (P0, P1, P2, P3) with different electric power levels under various driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC, and RTS95). A numerical model of a compact class passenger car with a 48V powertrain was created and experimental fuel consumption maps for engines running on different fuels (gasoline, Diesel, E85, CNG) were used to simulate its CO2 emissions. The simulation results were analysed to determine why specific powertrain combinations were more efficient under certain driving conditions. As expected, the greatest influence on emissions was from powertrain architectures. Increased electric power levels (from 8 kW to 20 kW) allowed more brake energy to be recovered, reducing CO2 emissions by 2 - 16% depending on the…
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Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions with Reliability Analysis Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

Chalmers University of Technology-Andrea Matrisciano
Brandenburg University of Technology-Tim Franken, Fabian Mauss
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of a physics-based zero-dimensional stochastic reactor model combined with tabulated chemistry enables the simulation-supported development of future compression-ignited engines. The stochastic reactor model mimics mixture and temperature inhomogeneities induced by turbulence, direct injection and heat transfer. Thus, it is possible to improve the prediction of NOx emissions compared to common mean-value models. To reduce the number of designs to be evaluated during the simulation-based multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms are proven to be an effective tool. Based on an initial set of designs, the algorithm aims to evolve the designs to find the best parameters for the given constraints and objectives. The extension by response surface models improves the prediction of the best possible Pareto Front, while the time of optimization is kept low. This work presents a novel methodology to couple the stochastic reactor model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm. First, the stochastic reactor model is calibrated for 10 low, medium and high load operating points at various engine speeds. Second, each operating point is optimized to find the lowest fuel consumption…
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Spray Characterization of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays Under Fuel Injection Pressures up to 150 MPa with Different Nozzle Geometries

Chalmers University of Technology-Lucien Koopmans, Petter Dahlander
Denso Corp.-Akichika Yamaguchi
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Maximum fuel injection pressures for GDI engines is expected to increase due to positive effects on emissions and engine-efficiency. Current GDI injectors have maximum operating pressures of 35 MPa, but higher injection pressures have yielded promising reductions in particle number (PN) and improved combustion stability. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, and there have been few studies on fuel sprays formed at high injection pressures.This paper summarizes experimental studies on the properties of sprays formed at high injection pressures. The results of these experiments can be used as inputs for CFD simulations and studies on combustion behavior, emissions formation, and combustion system design. The experiments were conducted using an injection rate meter and optical methods in a constant volume spray chamber. Injection rate measurements were performed to determine the injectors’ flow characteristics. Spray imaging was performed using a high-speed video camera. Several spray properties such as the liquid spray penetration, spray plume angle, and the spray breakup point were determined as functions of the fuel injection pressure and injected fuel mass…
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Water Injection Benefits in a 3-Cylinder Downsized SI-Engine

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Chalmers University of Technology-Jayesh Khatri, Ingemar Denbratt, Petter Dahlander, Lucien Koopmans
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0034
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
With progressing electrification of automotive powertrains and demands to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, a combination of an electric motor and downsized turbocharged spark-ignited engine has been recognized as a viable solution. The SI engine must be optimized, and preferentially downsized, to reduce tailpipe CO2 and other emissions. However, drives to increase BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and compression ratio/thermal efficiency increase propensities of knocking (auto-ignition of residual unburnt charge before the propagating flame reaches it) in downsized engines.Currently, knock is mitigated by retarding the ignition timing, but this has several limitations. Another option identified in the last decade (following trials of similar technology in aircraft combustion engines) is water injection, which suppresses knocking largely by reducing local in-cylinder mixture temperatures due to its latent heat of vaporization. Addition of adequate water can lead to stoichiometric air/fuel ratio engine operation, and hence both reduction in fuel consumption and full utilization of a three-way catalytic converter (TWC).Further information about effects of various water injection parameters is required. Thus, in this study, a 4-stroke, 1.5 liter, 3-cylinder…
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Optical Diagnostics of Spray Characteristics and Soot Volume Fractions of n-Butanol, n-Octanol, Diesel, and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Blends in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

Chalmers University of Technology-Tankai Zhang, Mats Andersson, Karin Munch, Ingemar Denbratt
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The effects of using n-butanol, n-octanol, fossil Diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), and blends of these fuels on spray penetration, flame and soot characteristics were investigated in a high-pressure high-temperature constant volume combustion chamber designed to mimic a heavy duty Diesel engine. Backlight illumination was used to capture liquid and vapor phase spray images with a high-speed camera. The flame lift-off length (LOL) and ignition delay were determined by analyzing OH* chemiluminescence images. Laser extinction diagnostics were used to measure the spatially and temporally resolved soot volume fraction. The spray experiments were performed by injecting fuels under non-combusting (623 K) and combusting (823 K) conditions at a fixed ambient air density of 26 kg/m3. A Scania 0.19 mm single straight hole injector and Scania XPI common rail fuel supply system were used to produce injection pressures of 120 MPa and 180 MPa. To evaluate the effect of cetane number (CN) variation on combustion processes and soot emissions, di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was added to one blend to modify its CN without greatly altering its composition. The…
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Large-Eddy Simulation on the Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure on the Gasoline Spray Characteristics

Chalmers University of Technology-Sandip Wadekar, Michael Oevermann
Denso Sweden-Akichika Yamaguchi
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Increasing the injection pressure in gasoline direct injection engines has a substantial potential to reduce emissions while maintaining a high efficiency in spark ignition engines. Present gasoline injectors are operating in the range of 20 MPa to 25 MPa. Now there is an interest in higher fuel injection pressures, for instance, around 40 MPa, 60 MPa and even higher pressures, because of its potential for further emission reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. In order to fully utilize the high-pressure fuel injection technology, a fundamental understanding of gasoline spray characteristics is vital to gain insight into spray behavior under such high injection pressures. The understanding achieved may also be beneficial to improve further model development and facilitate the integration of such advanced injection systems into future gasoline engines. In the present study, a gasoline fuel spray has been investigated over a range of fuel injection pressures from 40 to 150 MPa through a numerical simulation study. The numerical calculations have been performed in a constant volume chamber under non-vaporizing conditions to best match the experimental setup.…
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