Terms:
SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety
AND
6
AND
1
Show Only

Collections

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Analysis of Single-Vehicle Accidents in Japan Involving Elderly Drivers

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Kazumoto Morita, Michiaki Sekine
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0002
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The Japanese population is aging rapidly, raising the number of traffic accidents involving elderly drivers. In Japan, single-vehicle accidents are a serious problem because they often result in fatalities. We analyzed these accidents by vehicle type, age group, and driving area. To examine the risk of accidents of the elderly drivers, their driving frequency needs to be considered, which is less. Moreover, it is difficult to know the actual distance driven by them. Therefore, in this article, based on the assumption that the number of rear-end collisions is a proxy for the traffic volume, we used the number of such collisions as a control for the driving frequency. It was found that in single-vehicle accidents, elderly drivers were at higher risk than other age groups, especially when driving light motor vehicles (K-type vehicles) in non-urban areas. A possible explanation is the higher frequency with which the elderly drive K-type vehicles in areas where there are few other vehicles on the road.
Annotation ability available

Numerical Prediction of Various Failure Modes in Spotweld Steel Material

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Wichita State University-Sachin Patil, Hamid Lankarani
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0003
Published 2018-05-11 by SAE International in United States
Crash simulation is targeted mainly carried out by the collision regulations FMVSS simulation to identify problems in vehicle structures. A modern car structure consist of several thousand weld-type connections, and failure in these connections plays an important role for the crashworthiness of the vehicle. Therefore accurate modeling of these connections is important for the automotive industry in order to improve Vehicle collision characteristics. In pursuit of this key requirement, we introduced a proper methodology for the development detailed weld model to study structural response of the weld when the applied load range is beyond the yield strength. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of spot welded joints are developed using the LS-Dyna FE code. In this process the force estimation model of spot welds is explained. The results from this paper shows good agreement between the simulations and the tests. Therefore, spot weld model obtained from this study should be considered for applications in crash analysis.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Wheel Chock Key Design Elements and Geometrical Profile for Truck Vehicle Restraint

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et sécurité du travail-Laurent Giraud
Modular Motion Corporation-Jacques Lemire
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0006
Published 2018-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Wheel chocks are rather simple compliant mechanisms for stabilizing vehicles at rest. However, chocks must be carefully designed given the complex interaction between the chock and the tire/suspension system. Despite their importance for safety, literature is surprisingly limited in terms of what makes a wheel chock efficient. Using simple but reliable quasi-static mechanical models, this study identifies mechanical requirements that help to avoid a number of failure modes associated with many existing wheel chocks. Given that chock grounding is not always possible, a chock’s maximum restraining capacity is only obtained when the wheel is completely supported by the chock. A generic chock profile is proposed to achieve this objective while mitigating undesirable failure modes. The profile is based on fundamental mechanical principles and no assumption is made on the load interaction between the chock and the wheel. A more specific clothoid chock profile is further proposed to minimize the tire dynamic contact force with the chock and its rate of variation when engaging a chock in a dynamic situation. The proposed chock design should be…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Automated Driving Systems and Their Insertion in the Brazilian Scenario: A Test Track Proposal

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Universidade Federal de Lavras-Danilo Alves de Lima, Arthur Miranda Neto, Sérgio Texeira da Silva, Leonardo Ferreira Velho
Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Paris-Saclay)-Andrea Martinesco
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0004
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The conception of Automated Driving Systems is expanding fast with the expectation of the whole society and with heavy investments toward research and development. However, the insertion of these vehicles in real scenarios worldwide is still a challenge for governments, once they require an important evolution of the legal and regulatory framework. Although there are several initiatives to accelerate the insertion process, each country has specificities when considering the traffic scenario. In order to contribute to this emerging problem, this article presents a perspective of how the insertion of these vehicles can be performed considering specificities of the Brazilian scenario, one of the world's biggest car markets. Thus, it is discussed the global scenario of autonomous vehicles, the Brazilian traffic system, and the certification and homologation process, focusing on a new test track proposal. This track is a complete facility for vehicles from different types and sizes, which allow experimentation integrating various possibilities. This initiative is expected to bring ideas, how Brazil can optimize the insertion of automated vehicles on public roads, considering industry and…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Theoretical Study of Improving the Safety of the “Operator, Machine, and Environment” System when Performing Transport Operations

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Russian Institute for Strategic Studies-Oleg Nikolaevich Larin
South Ural State University (National Research University)-Konstantin Viatcheslavovich Glemba, Yuri Ivanovich Averyanov
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0001
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The article considers the issues of a systemic approach to studying safety levels in transport operations and ways to increase the safety of the operator-machine system in Russian transport. The principal and problematic issues of reducing the risk of injury by preventing traffic accidents and reducing the severity of their impact have not been sufficiently addressed. When performing transport operations, there are often disagreements between the elements of the “Operator, Machine, and Environment” technological system due to the influence of external conditions and parameters of the constantly-changing environment in the workplace. This leads to a sharp increase in the number of failures of system elements, which reduces the level of safety of transport operations. Analysis of the impact of major factors on the risk level when the operator performs transport operations has shown that it is necessary to study the nature of the change in the input and internal factors that influence the risk level of the “operator” subsystem. The “operator-machine” system operates in conditions, which are constantly changing and are random in their nature.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Component Level Transfer Equations of Simplified Human and ATD Occupant Models

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Wake Forest University School of Medicine-Berkan Guleyupoglu, Bharath Koya, Francis Scott Gayzik
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-01-0005
Published 2018-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Safety systems have historically been evaluated with anthropomorphic test devices for research, development, or regulatory concerns. Human body models are another avenue for use in the investigation of occupant safety. In this study, transfer equations are developed to quantify the response of a human model (Global Human Body Models Consortium average male simplified model) and dummy model (Hybrid-III) in equivalent environments. Environments were selected based on certification test setups used for the Hybrid III ATD as well as a basic frontal sled environment. The tests include a head drop, neck flexion/extension, and chest and knee impacts. Furthermore, models were positioned within a simplified occupant interior for sled tests. In all, 30 matched pair simulations were run, 60 in total. Peak metrics between human and anthropomorphic test device models showed strong linear correlation in component testing however, as the complexity of the simulations increased, agreement tended to decrease. Kinematic data are also presented and they trend similarly between human and anthropomorphic test device models however they exhibit different timing and peaks. Within the range tested, the…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available