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Pedestrian/Bicyclist Limb Motion Analysis from 110-Car TASI Video Data for Autonomous Emergency Braking Testing Surrogate Development

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Indiana University Purdue University-Renran Tian, Stanley Chien, Li Fu, Yaobin Chen
TEMA-Rini Sherony
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1456
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important to understand these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, there is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs move, especially at the most critical moments for potential crashes. In this study, a total of 832 pedestrian walking or cyclist biking cases were randomly selected from one large-scale naturalistic driving database containing 480,000 video segments with a total size of 94TB, and then the 832 video clips were analyzed focusing on their limb motions. We modeled the pedestrian/bicyclist limb motions in four layers: (1) the percentages of pedestrians and bicyclists who have limb motions when crossing the road; (2) the averaged action…
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Event Data Recorder (EDR) Developed by Toyota Motor Corporation

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Bosch Automotive Service Solutions Inc.-William Rose
TEMA-Rini Sherony, Daniel Mikat
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1495
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
An event data recorder (EDR) records the vehicle status at the timing of an accident. Toyota Motor Corporation began the sequential introduction of EDRs onto its vehicles from August 2000. Currently, about 70% of all Toyota’s vehicles in North America are equipped with an EDR, which is more than the average rate of EDR installation in vehicles in North America (around 50%). The U.S. has introduced regulations for EDRs. Toyota regards these as minimum requirements and also records additional data for accident analysis, including the following: (1) pre-crash data, (2) side crash data, (3) rollover data, (4) pedestrian protection pop-up hood (PUH) data, and (5) vehicle control history (VCH) data from a non-crash triggered recording system. The regulations stipulate that EDR data retrieval must be possible using a commercially available tool. The developed system uses the Crash Data Retrieval (CDR) tool manufactured by Bosch. Data from all Toyota EDRs around the world can be retrieved using the CDR tool, including in North America. Since EDR data collection and analysis are very important for real-world accident…
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Tire Mark Striations: Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Kineticorp LLC-Gray Beauchamp, Dana Thornton, William Bortles, Nathan Rose
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1468
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Previous work demonstrated that the orientation of tire mark striations can be used to infer the braking actions of the driver [1]. An equation that related tire mark striation angle to longitudinal tire slip, the mathematical definition of braking, was presented. This equation can be used to quantify the driver’s braking input based on the physical evidence. Braking input levels will affect the speed of a yawing vehicle and quantifying the amount of braking can increase the accuracy of a speed analysis. When using this technique in practice, it is helpful to understand the sensitivity and uncertainties of the equation. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the equation are explored and presented in this study. The results help to formulate guidelines for the practical application of the method and expected accuracy under specified conditions. A case study is included that demonstrates the analysis of tire mark striations deposited during a real-world accident.
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Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Iowa-Lauren Sager, Sarah Hacker, Robert Marini, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson
University of Iowa Hospital and Clinic-Nazan Aksan
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1439
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver’s line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (∼80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains. Closer inspection of data revealed that younger to middle aged drivers were already braking (42%) on…
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Signal Sound Positioning Alters Driving Performance

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Luleå University of Technology-André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen, Roger Johnsson
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9152
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Many of the information systems in cars require visual attention, and a way to reduce both visual and cognitive workload could be to use sound. An experiment was designed in order to determine how driving and secondary task performance is affected by the use of information sound signals and their spatial positions. The experiment was performed in a driving simulator utilizing Lane Change Task as a driving scenario in combination with the Surrogate Reference Task as a secondary task. Two different signal sounds with different spatial positions informed the driver when a lane change should be made and when a new secondary task was presented. Driving performance was significantly improved when both signal sounds were presented in front of the driver. No significant effects on secondary task performance were found. It is recommended that signal sounds are placed in front of the driver, when possible, if the goal is to draw attention forward.
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Comparison of the Accuracy and Sensitivity of Generation 1, 2 and 3 Toyota Event Data Recorders in Low-Speed Collisions

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

MEA Forensic Engineers and Scientists-Peter Xing, Felix Lee, Thomas Flynn, Craig Wilkinson, Gunter Siegmund
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1494
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The accuracy of the speed change reported by Generation 1 Toyota Corolla Event Data Recorders (EDR) in low-speed front and rear-end collisions has previously been studied. It was found that the EDRs underestimated speed change in frontal collisions and overestimated speed change in rear-end collisions. The source of the uncertainty was modeled using a threshold acceleration and bias model. This study compares the response of Generation 1, 2 and 3 Toyota EDRs from Toyota Corolla, Camry and Prius models. 19 Toyota airbag control modules (ACMs) were mounted on a linear sled. The ACMs underwent a series of frontal and rear-end haversine crash pulses of varying severity, duration and peak acceleration. The accuracy and trigger thresholds of the different models and generations of EDRs were compared. There were different accuracy trends found between the early Generation 1 and the more modern Generation 2 and 3 EDRs. There were also differences found in the threshold and trigger characteristics of the Generation 3 EDRs. This study extends the understanding of how Toyota EDRs respond in low speed collisions…
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Predicting Snowmobile Speed from Visible Locked-Track and Rolldown Marks in Groomed/Packed Snow Conditions

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

MEA Forensic Engineers and Scientists-Pamela D'Addario, Ken Iliadis, Gunter Siegmund
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1477
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The ability to accurately calculate a snowmobile’s speed based on measured track marks in the snow is important when assessing a snowmobile accident. The characteristics and length of visible snowmobile track marks were documented for 41 locked-track braking tests and 38 rolldown tests using four modern snowmobiles on a groomed/packed snow surface. The documented track mark lengths were used to quantify the uncertainty associated with using track mark length to estimate initial speed. Regression models were developed for both data sets. The regression model of the locked-track tests revealed that using an average deceleration of 0.36g over the length of the locked track mark provides a good estimate of the best-fit line through the data, with the upper and lower 95th percentile prediction interval bounds best represented by using deceleration rates of 0.23g and 0.52g respectively. For the rolldown tests, using an average deceleration of 0.23g over the length of the measured rolldown mark provides a good estimate of the best-fit line through the data, with the upper and lower bounds of the 95th percentile…
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Smart Lighting for Enhancing Perception of Pedestrians based on Visual Properties

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Shigeyoshi Hiratsuka, Shinichi Kojima, Nobuyuki Shiraki, Kazunori Higuchi, Toshihiko Tsukada, Keiichi Shimaoka
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazuya Asaoka, Sho Masuda, Kazuhiko Nakashima
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1414
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
We investigated a lighting method that supports pedestrian perception by vehicle drivers. This lighting method makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments using a Campbell-Robson chart, we determined a suitable lighting pattern that improves the driver's pedestrian perception. In order to assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task, such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests were performed in the target environment, the results of which validated the proposed method.
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Alternative Approaches to Occupant Response Evaluation in Frontal Impact Crash Testing

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

NHTSA-Timothy Keon
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1540
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has performed research investigating the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint 50th male (THOR-50M) response in Oblique crash tests. This research is being expanded to investigate THOR-50M in the driver position in a 56 km/h frontal impact crash. Hybrid III 5th percentile adult female (AF05) anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were used in this testing to evaluate the RibEye Deflection Measurement System. The AF05 ATDs were positioned in the right front passenger and right rear passenger seating positions. For the right front passenger, the New Car Assessment Procedure (NCAP) seating procedure was used, except the seat fore-aft position was set to mid-track. For the right rear passenger, the seating followed the FMVSS No. 214 Side Impact Compliance Test Procedure. The NCAP frontal impact test procedure was followed with additional vehicle instrumentation and pre/post-test measurements. Results from this test series were compared with previous NCAP crash tests. The THOR-50M showed similar kinematics to the Hybrid III 50th but predicted a higher risk of chest and femur injury. The mid-track seat position…
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Response Times for Visual, Auditory and Vibrotactile Directional Cues in Driver Assistance Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Luleå University of Technology-André Lundkvist, Arne Nykänen
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-9153
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The number of advanced driver assistance systems is constantly increasing. Many of the systems require visual attention, and a way to reduce risks associated with inattention could be to use multisensory signals. A driver's main attention is in front of the car, but inattention to surrounding areas beside and behind the car can be a risk. Therefore, there is a need for driver assistance systems capable of directing attention to the sides. In a simulator study, combined visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals for directional attention capture were designed for use in driver assistance systems, such as blind spot information, parking assistance, collision warnings, navigation, lane departure warning etc. An experiment was conducted in order to measure the effects of the use of different sensory modalities on directional attention (left/right) in driver assistance systems. Attention was assessed in a driving simulator using Lane Change Task together with a secondary task, designed to measure choice response times and error rates to directional (left/right) information for multisensory signals. Different combinations of visual, auditory and vibrotactile signals were tested…
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