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Validation of Equations for Motorcycle and Rider Lean on a Curve

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Kineticorp LLC-Neal Carter, Nathan A. Rose, David Pentecost
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1422
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Several sources report simple equations for calculating the lean angle required for a motorcycle and rider to traverse a curved path at a particular speed. These equations utilize several assumptions that reconstructionists using them should consider. First, they assume that the motorcycle is traveling a steady speed. Second, they assume that the motorcycle and its rider lean to the same lean angle. Finally, they assume that the motorcycle tires have no width, such that the portion of the tires contacting the roadway does not change or move as the motorcycle and rider lean. This study reports physical testing that the authors conducted with motorcycles traversing curved paths to examine the net effect of these assumptions on the accuracy of the basic formulas for motorcycle lean angle. We concluded that the basic lean angle formulas consistently underestimate the lean angle of the motorcycle as it traverses a particular curved path. This finding is consistent with the expected effect of the simplifying assumptions employed by these basic formulas.
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Accuracy of SUAS Photogrammetry for Use in Accident Scene Diagramming

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Unmanned Experts-Drew A. Jurkofsky
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1426
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Photogrammetry from images captured by terrestrial cameras and manned aircraft has been used for many years to model objects, create scale diagrams and measure distances for use in traffic accident investigation and reconstruction. Due to increasing capability and availability, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), including small UAS (SUAS), are becoming a valuable, cost effective tool for collecting aerial images for photogrammetric analysis. The metric accuracy of scale accident scene diagrams created from SUAS imagery has yet to be compared to conventional measurement methods, such as total station and laser measurement systems, which are widely used by public safety officials and private consultants.For this study, two different SUAS were used to collect aerial imagery for photogrammetric processing using PhotoModeler software. A high-resolution consumer grade camera as well as a lower-resolution integrated camera was used as payload to determine the effect of camera resolution on the photogrammetric accuracy of two mock accident scenes. Using a Nikon total station as measurement control, SUAS photogrammetry from both cameras was compared using established targets. As a subjective comparison, the roadway layout…
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Driver Lane Change Prediction Using Physiological Measures

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Ford Motor Co.-Dev S. Kochhar
University of Michigan-Yi lu Murphey, Paul Watta, Xipeng Wang, Tianyu Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1403
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Side swipe accidents occur primarily when drivers attempt an improper lane change, drift out of lane, or the vehicle loses lateral traction. Past studies of lane change detection have relied on vehicular data, such as steering angle, velocity, and acceleration. In this paper, we use three physiological signals from the driver to detect lane changes before the event actually occurs. These are the electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and respiration rate (RR) and were determined, in prior studies, to best reflect a driver's response to the driving environment. A novel system is proposed which uses a Granger causality test for feature selection and a neural network for classification. Test results showed that for 30 lane change events and 60 non lane change events in on-the-road driving, a true positive rate of 70% and a false positive rate of 10% was obtained.
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Brake Burnishing Effect on AEB Performance

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety-Myles Wilson, David Aylor, David Zuby, Joseph Nolan
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1481
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) evaluates autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems as part of its front crash prevention (FCP) ratings. To prepare the test vehicles' brakes, each vehicle must have 200 miles on the odometer and be subjected to the abbreviated brake burnish procedure of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 126. Other organizations conducting AEB testing follow the more extensive burnishing procedure described in FMVSS 135; Light Vehicle Brake Systems. This study compares the effects on AEB performance of the two burnishing procedures using seven 2014 model year vehicles.Six of the vehicles achieved maximum AEB speed reductions after 60 or fewer FMVSS 135 stops. After braking performance stabilized, the Mercedes ML350, BMW 328i, and Volvo S80 showed increased speed reductions compared with stops using brand new brake components. The Acura RLX and Cadillac CTS showed no change in speed reductions, and the speed reductions of the Dodge Durango and Lexus IS 250 worsened.After the FMVSS 135 burnishing was complete, AEB runs at 20 and 40 km/h were conducted to compare the results…
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Study of Reproducibility of Pedal Tracking and Detection Response Task to Assess Driver Distraction

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Tatsuya Iwasa, Toshihiro Hashimoto
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1388
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
We have developed a bench test method to assess driver distraction caused by the load of using infotainment systems. In a previous study, we found that this method can be used to assess the task loads of both visual-manual tasks and auditory-vocal tasks. The task loads are assessed using the performances of both pedal tracking task (PT) and detection response task (DRT) while performing secondary tasks. We can perform this method using simple equipment such as game pedals and a PC. The aim of this study is to verify the reproducibility of the PT-DRT. Experiments were conducted in three test environments in which test regions, experimenters and participants differed from each other in the US, and the test procedures were almost the same. We set two types of visual-manual tasks and two types of auditory-vocal tasks as secondary tasks and set two difficulties for each task type to vary the level of task load. As a result of these experiments, we found that differences in performances of PT and DRT among the different task types…
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Influence of the Upper Body of Pedestrians on Lower Limb Injuries and Effectiveness of the Upper Body Compensation Method of the FlexPLI

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc.-Yukou Takahashi
Japan Automobile Research Institute-Takahiro Isshiki, Atsuhiro Konosu
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1470
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Current legform impact test methods using the FlexPLI have been developed to protect pedestrians from lower limb injuries in collisions with low-bumper vehicles. For this type of vehicles, the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb is compensated by setting the impact height of the FlexPLI 50 mm above that of pedestrians. However, neither the effectiveness of the compensation method of the FlexPLI nor the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian has been clarified with high-bumper vehicles.In this study, therefore, two computer simulation analyses were conducted in order to analyze: (1) The influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian when impacted by high-bumper vehicles and (2) The effectiveness of the compensation method for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI for high-bumper vehicles.The results show that the upper body significantly influenced the bending load generated in the lower limb of a…
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Improved Seat Belt Restraint Geometry for Frontal, Frontal Oblique and Rollover Incidents

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

NASCAR-John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
TK Holdings Inc-Mike Rains
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0740
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the development and implementation of head and neck restraints, minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper discusses nineteen sled tests used to analyze hypothesized improvements to restraint system mounting geometry. The testing matrix included three sled acceleration profiles, three impact orientations, two Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) sizes as well as the restraint system design variables.
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Assessment of Similarity of a Set of Impact Response Time Histories

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

FCA US LLC-Yibing Shi, Guy Nusholtz
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1441
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two methods of assessing the similarity of a set of impact test signals have been proposed and used in the literature, which are cumulative variance-based and cross correlation-based. In this study, a normalized formulation unites these two approaches by establishing a relationship between the normalized cumulative variance metric (v), an overall similarity metric, and the normalized magnitude similarity metric (m) and shape similarity metric (s): v=1 − m · s. Each of these ranges between 0 and 1 (for the practical case of signals acquired with the same polarity), and they are independent of the physical unit of measurement. Under generally satisfied conditions, the magnitude similarity m is independent of the relative time shifts among the signals in the set; while the shape similarity s is a function of these. An optimal alignment is defined as the relative shifts corresponding to the minimum of the cumulative variance metric, or equivalently, to the maximum of the shape similarity metric. This system therefore quantifies the similarity of a given set of signals with an “as given” relative…
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Target Population for Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in the U.S.

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Virginia Tech-Kristofer D. Kusano, Hampton C. Gabler
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1408
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Intersection crashes are a frequent and dangerous crash mode in the U.S. Emerging Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) aim to assist the driver to mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-vehicle crashes at intersections. In support of the design and evaluation of such intersection assistance systems, characterization of the road, environment, and drivers associated with intersection crashes is necessary. The objective of this study was to characterize intersection crashes using nationally representative crash databases that contained all severity, serious injury, and fatal crashes. This study utilized four national crash databases: the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES); the NASS Crashworthiness Data System (CDS); and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (EARS) and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS).Straight Crossing Path (SCP), Left Turn Across Path Opposite Direction (LTAP/OD), and Left Turn Across Path Lateral Direction (LTAP/LD) made up 78% to 98% of all crossing path crashes. Furthermore, between 73% and 95% of these top three crossing path scenarios occurred at intersections. The analysis in this paper, therefore, focused on SCP, LTAP/OD, and LTAP/LD…
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A Comparison of the Behaviors of Steel and GFRP Hat-Section Components under Axial Quasi-Static and Impact Loading

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Indian Institute of Science-Bisheshwar Haorongbam, Anindya Deb
Wayne State University-Clifford Chou
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1482
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hat-sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components. These components play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during vehicle crashes thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. However, with the need for higher fuel economy and for compliance to stringent emission norms, auto manufacturers are looking for means to continually reduce vehicle body weight either by employing lighter materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced plastics, or by using higher strength steel with reduced gages, or by combinations of these approaches. Unlike steel hat-sections which have been extensively reported in published literature, the axial crushing behavior of hat-sections made of fiber-reinforced composites may not have been adequately probed. In the current study, the performance of double hat-sections made of a glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) is compared with steel hat-sections of similar size under axial quasi-static and impact loading conditions. It has been found that during quasi-static testing, despite the occurrence of multiple brittle failure modes in GFRP-based hat-section components, the overall response displays an extremely healthy…
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