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Assessment of the Accuracy of Certain Reduced Order Models used in the Prediction of Occupant Injury during Under-Body Blast Events

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

ESI US Inc-Kumar B. Kulkarni
US Army TARDEC-Jaisankar Ramalingam, Ravi Thyagarajan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0752
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
It is of considerable interest to developers of military vehicles, in early phases of the concept design process as well as in Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) phase, to quickly predict occupant injury risk due to under-body blast loading. The most common occupant injuries in these extremely short duration events arise out of the very high vertical acceleration of vehicle due to its close proximity to hot high pressure gases from the blast. In a prior study [16], an extensive parametric study was conducted in a systematic manner so as to create look-up tables or automated software tools that decision-makers can use to quickly estimate the different injury responses for both stroking and non-stroking seat systems in terms of a suitable blast load parameter. The primary objective of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of using such a tool in lieu of building a detailed model for simulation and occupant injury assessment.
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A Vision-Based Forward Collision Warning System Developed under Virtual Environment

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

State Key Lab of Automotive Simulation & Control, Jilin Univ-Fei Han, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Bei Ren, Ying Wang
Technical Center of DongFeng Motor Co.-Jie Bai
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0754
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel approach of developing a vision-based forward collision warning system (FCW) under a virtual and real-time driving environment. The proposed environment mainly includes a 3D high-fidelity virtual driving environment developed with computer graphics technologies, a virtual camera model and a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with a driver simulator. Some preliminary simulation has been conducted to verify that the proposed virtual environment along with the image generated by a virtual camera model is valid with sufficient fidelity, and the real-time HIL development system with driver in the loop is effective in the early design, test and verification of the FCW and other similar ADAS systems.
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A Comparative Benchmark Study of using Different Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms for Restraint System Design

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Ford Motor Co.-Yan Fu, Ching-Hung Chuang, Ren-Jye Yang
Northwestern Univ.-Hongyi Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0564
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint system design is a difficult optimization problem to solve because (1) the nature of the problem is highly nonlinear, non-convex, noisy, and discontinuous; (2) there are large numbers of discrete and continuous design variables; (3) a design has to meet safety performance requirements for multiple crash modes simultaneously, hence there are a large number of design constraints. Based on the above knowledge of the problem, it is understandable why design of experiment (DOE) does not produce a high-percentage of feasible solutions, and it is difficult for response surface methods (RSM) to capture the true landscape of the problem. Furthermore, in order to keep the restraint system more robust, the complexity of restraint system content needs to be minimized in addition to minimizing the relative risk score to achieve New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) 5-star rating. These call for identifying the most appropriate multi-objective optimization algorithm to solve this type of vehicle restraint system design problem. In this paper, several advanced multi-objective optimization algorithms are employed to solve a large-scale restraint system design problem.…
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A Comparison of the NHTSA Research Offset Oblique and Small Overlap Impact Tests and the IIHS Moderate and Small Overlap Tests

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Ryuuji Ootani
Nissan North America, Inc.-Joyce Lam, Nate J. Dennis, Jeff Dix, Martin Lambrecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0537
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) have both developed crash test methodologies to address frontal collisions in which the vehicle's primary front structure is either partially engaged or not engaged at all. IIHS addresses Small Overlap crashes, cases in which the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure is not engaged, using a rigid static barrier with an overlap of 25% of the vehicle's width at an impact angle of 0°. The Institute's Moderate Overlap partially engages the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure using a deformable static barrier with 40% overlap at a 0° impact angle. The NHTSA has developed two research test methods which use a common moving deformable barrier impacting the vehicle with 20% overlap at a 7° impact angle and 35% overlap at a 15° impact angle respectively. In this paper, the authors present a case study in which an exemplar mid-size sedan was subjected to all four impact conditions. Following the NHTSA research procedures and IIHS protocols, the anthropomorphic test devices used…
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Acceleration Testing and Modeling of Vehicle Kinematics Under Idle Conditions

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Biomechanical Research & Testing-Bryan Randles, Daniel Voss, Isaac Ikram, Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher, Thomas Szabo
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0484
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Determination of vehicle speed at the time of impact is frequently an important factor in accident reconstruction. In many cases some evidence may indicate that the brake pedal of a striking vehicle was disengaged, and the vehicle was permitted to idle forward prior to impacting the target vehicle. This study was undertaken to analyze the kinematic response of various vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions while idling, with the transmissions in drive and the brake pedals disengaged. An array of sedans, SUV's and pickup trucks were tested under 3 roadway conditions (flat, medium slope and high slope). The vehicle responses are reported and mathematical relationships were developed to model the idle velocity profiles for flat and sloped roadway surfaces.
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Comparison of the THOR and Hybrid III Responses in Oblique Impacts

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Hyundai America Technical Center-Michael Guerrero, Kapil Butala, Ravi Tangirala, Amy Klinkenberger
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0559
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
NHTSA has been investigating a new test mode in which a research moving deformable barrier (RMDB) impacts a stationary vehicle at 90.1 kph, a 15 degree angle, and a 35% vehicle overlap. The test utilizes the THOR NT with modification kit (THOR) dummy positioned in both the driver and passenger seats. This paper compares the behavior of the THOR and Hybrid III dummies during this oblique research test mode.A series of four full vehicle oblique impact crash tests were performed. Two tests were equipped with THOR dummies and two tests were equipped with Hybrid III dummies. All dummies represent 50th percentile males and were positioned in the vehicle according to the FMVSS208 procedure. The Hybrid III dummies were instrumented with the Nine Accelerometer Package (NAP) to calculate brain injury criteria (BrIC) as well as THOR-Lx lower legs. Injury responses were recorded for each dummy during the event. High speed cameras were used to capture vehicle and dummy kinematics. The vehicle restraint devices and their associated deployment times remained the same for each test. Post test…
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Crash Test with a Hot Operating Engine and R-1234yf MAC System

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Adam Opel AG-Mathias Poklitar, Lothar Seybold
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0420
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
As part of the launch of the refrigerant R-1234yf there were a number of studies done regarding the ignition behavior of this new refrigerant in passenger cars. These tests were conducted by a number of automobile manufacturers, component suppliers, and the refrigerant supplier under laboratory conditions at the component and vehicle level. In November 2009 the international automotive industry concluded that the R-1234yf can be used safely in automotive air conditioning systems.Further tests were conducted by different automobile manufacturers, suppliers, and the refrigerant supplier under various laboratory and vehicle operation conditions means hot surfaces in the engine compartment. A number of vehicle manufactures have conducted full vehicle crash tests.In this paper, real world accidents are analyzed using the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database as well as the thermal parameters for ignition of R-1234yf, i.e. concentration and surface temperature to create a worst-case scenario. These parameters were considered while conducting a frontal impact test with a hot 1.4 liter turbo gasoline engine with a critical overheated exhaust surface temperature and an operating R-1234yf Mobile Air…
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An Examination of Crash and NASS Data to Evaluate the Field Relevance of IIHS Small Offset Tests

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

D. J. Dalmotas Consulting Inc.-D. Dalmotas, A. German
Prasad Engineering, LLC-P. Prasad
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1989
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the analysis of a series of frontal crash tests conducted by the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety that are commonly referred to as Small Overlap Impacts (SOI). The occurrence and severity of such frontal impacts in the real world were estimated using two different methods. Both methods used the National Automotive Sampling Scheme (NASS), which is a stratified sample of crashes in the US. The first method utilized an algorithm commonly known as Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The second method was based on comparison of deformation patterns of vehicles involved in frontal crashes in the NASS data files with those produced in tests conducted by the IIHS. FIT analysis of the data indicate that approximately 7.5% of all 11-1 o'clock frontal crashes in NASS are represented by the IIHS SOI test condition and they account for 6.1% of all serious-to-fatal injuries to front seat occupants restrained by seat belts and airbags. Based on the analysis of test and crash front end damage data, it is estimated that the IIHS SOI test mode…
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Lateral Control for Automated Vehicle Following System in Urban Environments

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Seoul National University-Dongwook Kim, Hakgu Kim
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0161
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In contrast to highway, there are some sections not well maintained in urban roads. In these sections, there may be faint lane marks or static obstacles due to construction or some other reasons. Therefore, an automated vehicle following system such as traffic jam assistant should consider these sections to guarantee the safety of the system. In order to achieve this purpose, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme has been developed. The objectives of MPC are to compute the sequence of optimal steering input for vehicle following with obstacle avoidance. For this, the MPC uses the lead vehicle's state and obstacle's position obtained by lidars. For this purpose, a simplified nonlinear model of the vehicle was used to predict the future evolution of the system. Based on this prediction, performance index is optimized under operating constraints at each time step. A test vehicle equipped with two lidars on left and right corner of the front bumper has been developed. And the performance of the proposed MPC-based steering control algorithm has been investigated via vehicle test. Test…
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Characterization of Force Deflection Properties for Vehicular Bumper-to-Bumper Interactions

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Biodynamic Research Corp.-Enrique Bonugli, Jeffrey Wirth, James Funk, Joseph Cormier, Herbert Guzman, Lisa Gwin, Mark Freund
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1991
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This is the complete manuscript and replacement for SAE paper 2014-01-0482, which has been retracted due to incomplete content.This paper reports on 76 quasi-static tests conducted to investigate the behavior of road vehicle bumper systems. The tests are a quasi-static replication of real world low speed collisions. The tests represented front to rear impacts between various vehicles. Force and deflection were captured in order to quantify the stiffness characteristics of the bumper-to-bumper system.A specialized test apparatus was constructed to position and load bumper systems into each other. The purpose was to replicate or exceed damage that occurred in actual collisions. The fixture is capable of positioning the bumpers in various orientations and generates forces up to 50 kips. Various bumper-to-bumper alignments were tested including full overlap, lateral offset, and override/underride configurations. Force and displacement were recorded and the data was analyzed to develop system stiffness and crush parameters. These parameters can be used in a collision-based model to calculate vehicle delta-v (ΔV) and acceleration. The simulation uses an impact mechanics-based numerical algorithm published by Scott…
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