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Assessment of the Accuracy of Certain Reduced Order Models used in the Prediction of Occupant Injury during Under-Body Blast Events

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

ESI US Inc-Kumar B. Kulkarni
US Army TARDEC-Jaisankar Ramalingam, Ravi Thyagarajan
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0752
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
It is of considerable interest to developers of military vehicles, in early phases of the concept design process as well as in Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) phase, to quickly predict occupant injury risk due to under-body blast loading. The most common occupant injuries in these extremely short duration events arise out of the very high vertical acceleration of vehicle due to its close proximity to hot high pressure gases from the blast. In a prior study [16], an extensive parametric study was conducted in a systematic manner so as to create look-up tables or automated software tools that decision-makers can use to quickly estimate the different injury responses for both stroking and non-stroking seat systems in terms of a suitable blast load parameter. The primary objective of this paper is to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of using such a tool in lieu of building a detailed model for simulation and occupant injury assessment.
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Under-Body Blast Mitigation: Stand-Alone Seat Safety Activation System

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Paradigm Research and Engineering-Mehmet H. Uras
TARDEC-Sebastian Karwaczynski
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0556
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This work is based on a current project funded by the United States Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and is being conducted with the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ground Systems Survivability (GSS) Team and Paradigm Research and Engineering. The focus of this project is to develop an advanced and novel sensing and activation strategy for Pyrotechnic Restraint Systems, Air Bags and other systems that may require activation. The overriding technical challenge is to activate these systems to effectively protect the Soldier during blast events in addition to Crash, Rollover and Other Injury Causing events. These activations of Pyrotechnic systems must occur in fractions of milliseconds as compared to typical automotive crashes. By investigating systems outside of typical accelerometer based applications and activations, the potential exists to exploit systems that require little power, are self-contained and provide the required output for the desired result. As such Constant-Flux Magnetostrictive Sensors shall be evaluated in a self-contained environment to provide the output during these events. By activating the Pyrotechnic Restraint Systems and…
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A Vision-Based Forward Collision Warning System Developed under Virtual Environment

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

State Key Lab of Automotive Simulation & Control, Jilin Univ-Fei Han, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Bei Ren, Ying Wang
Technical Center of DongFeng Motor Co.-Jie Bai
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0754
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel approach of developing a vision-based forward collision warning system (FCW) under a virtual and real-time driving environment. The proposed environment mainly includes a 3D high-fidelity virtual driving environment developed with computer graphics technologies, a virtual camera model and a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system with a driver simulator. Some preliminary simulation has been conducted to verify that the proposed virtual environment along with the image generated by a virtual camera model is valid with sufficient fidelity, and the real-time HIL development system with driver in the loop is effective in the early design, test and verification of the FCW and other similar ADAS systems.
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A Comparative Benchmark Study of using Different Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms for Restraint System Design

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Ford Motor Co.-Yan Fu, Ching-Hung Chuang, Ren-Jye Yang
Northwestern Univ.-Hongyi Xu
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0564
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint system design is a difficult optimization problem to solve because (1) the nature of the problem is highly nonlinear, non-convex, noisy, and discontinuous; (2) there are large numbers of discrete and continuous design variables; (3) a design has to meet safety performance requirements for multiple crash modes simultaneously, hence there are a large number of design constraints. Based on the above knowledge of the problem, it is understandable why design of experiment (DOE) does not produce a high-percentage of feasible solutions, and it is difficult for response surface methods (RSM) to capture the true landscape of the problem. Furthermore, in order to keep the restraint system more robust, the complexity of restraint system content needs to be minimized in addition to minimizing the relative risk score to achieve New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) 5-star rating. These call for identifying the most appropriate multi-objective optimization algorithm to solve this type of vehicle restraint system design problem. In this paper, several advanced multi-objective optimization algorithms are employed to solve a large-scale restraint system design problem.…
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A Comparison of the NHTSA Research Offset Oblique and Small Overlap Impact Tests and the IIHS Moderate and Small Overlap Tests

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Ryuuji Ootani
Nissan North America, Inc.-Joyce Lam, Nate J. Dennis, Jeff Dix, Martin Lambrecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0537
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) have both developed crash test methodologies to address frontal collisions in which the vehicle's primary front structure is either partially engaged or not engaged at all. IIHS addresses Small Overlap crashes, cases in which the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure is not engaged, using a rigid static barrier with an overlap of 25% of the vehicle's width at an impact angle of 0°. The Institute's Moderate Overlap partially engages the vehicle's primary front energy absorbing structure using a deformable static barrier with 40% overlap at a 0° impact angle. The NHTSA has developed two research test methods which use a common moving deformable barrier impacting the vehicle with 20% overlap at a 7° impact angle and 35% overlap at a 15° impact angle respectively. In this paper, the authors present a case study in which an exemplar mid-size sedan was subjected to all four impact conditions. Following the NHTSA research procedures and IIHS protocols, the anthropomorphic test devices used…
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Design, Development and Testing of an Improved Stock Car Driver's Window Net Mounting System

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

NASCAR-John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, Don Krueger
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0508
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
First required in 1970 in NASCAR® (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) the driver's window safety net or driver's window net has continually evolved and improved. The driver's window net has played an important role in protecting race car drivers from injury.Driver's window nets were originally used to help keep the driver's upper torso, head and arms inside the interior of the race vehicle during crashes. As restraint systems were improved, the role of the driver's window net in stock car racing has transitioned to keeping flailing hands inside the interior of the car while also serving as a shield to protect the driver from intruding debris.This paper describes three separate window net and window net mounting tests and the use of these tests to design an improved window net mounting system. Also shown are test results of previously used window net mounting systems and the improved NASCAR system which has been incorporated into the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup, Nationwide Series, and Camping World Truck Series vehicles.
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Acceleration Testing and Modeling of Vehicle Kinematics Under Idle Conditions

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Biomechanical Research & Testing-Bryan Randles, Daniel Voss, Isaac Ikram, Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher, Thomas Szabo
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0484
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Determination of vehicle speed at the time of impact is frequently an important factor in accident reconstruction. In many cases some evidence may indicate that the brake pedal of a striking vehicle was disengaged, and the vehicle was permitted to idle forward prior to impacting the target vehicle. This study was undertaken to analyze the kinematic response of various vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions while idling, with the transmissions in drive and the brake pedals disengaged. An array of sedans, SUV's and pickup trucks were tested under 3 roadway conditions (flat, medium slope and high slope). The vehicle responses are reported and mathematical relationships were developed to model the idle velocity profiles for flat and sloped roadway surfaces.
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Comparison of the THOR and Hybrid III Responses in Oblique Impacts

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Hyundai America Technical Center-Michael Guerrero, Kapil Butala, Ravi Tangirala, Amy Klinkenberger
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0559
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
NHTSA has been investigating a new test mode in which a research moving deformable barrier (RMDB) impacts a stationary vehicle at 90.1 kph, a 15 degree angle, and a 35% vehicle overlap. The test utilizes the THOR NT with modification kit (THOR) dummy positioned in both the driver and passenger seats. This paper compares the behavior of the THOR and Hybrid III dummies during this oblique research test mode.A series of four full vehicle oblique impact crash tests were performed. Two tests were equipped with THOR dummies and two tests were equipped with Hybrid III dummies. All dummies represent 50th percentile males and were positioned in the vehicle according to the FMVSS208 procedure. The Hybrid III dummies were instrumented with the Nine Accelerometer Package (NAP) to calculate brain injury criteria (BrIC) as well as THOR-Lx lower legs. Injury responses were recorded for each dummy during the event. High speed cameras were used to capture vehicle and dummy kinematics. The vehicle restraint devices and their associated deployment times remained the same for each test. Post test…
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Influence of Feature Lines of Vehicle Hood Styling on Headform Kinematics and Injury Evaluation in Car-to-Pedestrian Impact Simulations

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Tsinghua Univ.-Qing Zhou, Yong Xia, Jisi Tang
Tsinghua Univ., Univ. of Virginia-Bingbing Nie
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0518
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle hood styling has significant influence on headform kinematics in assessment tests of pedestrian impact protection performance. Pedestrian headform kinematics on vehicle front-end models with different hood styling characteristics is analyzed based on finite element modeling. More elevated feature lines near hood boundary and the following continuous hood surface towards fender will result in a different headform motion. It can lead to larger deformation space, more rotation and earlier rebound of the headform impactor, which will benefit the head impact protection performance. In addition, hood geometry characteristics such as hood angle and curvature have effects on structural stiffness. Therefore, inclusion of considerations on pedestrian head protection into the vehicle hood styling design stage may lead to a more effective and efficient engineering design process on headform impact analysis.
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Finite-Element-Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Blunt Impact

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Ford Motor Co.-Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0486
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In the present study, transfer equations relating the responses of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to the mid-sized male Hybrid III test dummy (HIII50) under matched, or nearly-identical, loading conditions were developed via math modeling. Specifically, validated finite element (FE) models of the Ford Human Body Model (FHBM) and the HIII50 were used to generate sets of matched cases (i.e., 256 frontal impact cases involving different impact speeds, severities, and PMHS age). Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting age-dependent FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was conducted for five different body regions: head, neck, chest, femur, and tibia. All of the resulting regression equations, correlation coefficients, and response ratios (PHMS relative to HIII50) were consistent with the limited available test-based results.
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