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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Mechanical Systems
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Static Contact Behaviors of a Non-Pneumatic Tire with Hexagonal Lattice Spokes

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Korea Aerospace University-Kwangwon Kim, Doo Man Kim
University of North Texas-Jaehyung Ju
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9117
Published 2013-11-20 by SAE International in United States
A non-pneumatic tire (NPT) has two advantages over a conventional pneumatic tire; it is flat proof and maintenance free of air-pressure. In this study, while determining other advantages inherent in NPTs, the static contact behavior of NPTs with hexagonal honeycombs is investigated as a function of vertical loading and is compared with that of a pneumatic tire. A finite element based numerical simulation is carried out on the contact pressure of NPTs with cellular spokes and the local deformation of cellular spokes. A commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, is used to vary the vertical forces and lattice spoke geometries. A lower contact pressure is obtained with the NPTs than with the pneumatic tire due to the decreasing spoke stiffness of the NPTs when they are designed to have the same load carrying capability. An NPT with hexagonal lattice spokes having a higher cell angle shows a lower local cell wall stress in the spokes, associated with the flexible honeycomb property in uni-axial compression.
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Stud Noise Auralization

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Lulea University of Technology-Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9122
Published 2013-11-20 by SAE International in United States
During the winter special winter tires are used to prevent the car from slipping and the grip can be improved by using studded tires. Studded tires are known to cause higher noise levels and noise that is perceived as more annoying than non-studded tires. The objective was to model the interaction between the stud pattern and the stud/tire response (i.e. sound) caused by the excitation of the studs, and to make the result audible. In this study the interior airborne noise caused by the studs was auralized using a combination of recordings, modeling and filtering.The proposed stud auralization model makes it possible to evaluate the influence of the stud pattern and the stud/tire response at any desired speed. The noise caused by the studs is determined by the stud/tire responses when studs hit the pavement, the stud pattern and the speed of the tire. The stud patterns and the stud/tire responses were measured for 5 different studded tires. Auralizations were created for all combinations of stud patterns and responses at two different speeds. A listening…
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Modelling and Analyzing Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Single and Dual Epicyclic Power Split Transmissions

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Sunderland-Ahmed Elmarakbi, Derek Dixon, Rob Trimble, Qinglian Ren
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9119
Published 2013-11-20 by SAE International in United States
The main aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) using single and dual epicyclic power split transmissions (PST). The development of PST has been a crucial feature in the technological success of hybrid driveline vehicles. In this paper, single and twin epicyclic power split transmissions models are analyzed and the relationships of speed and torque of the engine, motor and generator are developed. The models are further extended to include all subsystems and a controller designer to be fitted in a typical hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV). Computer programmes for the analysis of epicyclic transmission based on a matrix method are developed and used. In addition, the performance and control strategy of the new system is presented. Three vehicle models are built-up; namely: traditional ICE vehicle, HEV with single epicyclic gearbox, and HEV with twin epicyclic gearbox. The vehicles are simulated over typical driving cycles. The results focus on fuel consumption comparisons but it is also shown how the single and twin epicyclic gearboxes use the engine and motor…
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Drivetrain Energy Distribution and Losses from Fuel to Wheel

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Johannes Beulshausen, Stefan Pischinger, Martin Nijs
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9118
Published 2013-11-20 by SAE International in United States
Depending on a vehicles drive cycle, an improvement of the overall drivetrain efficiency does not necessarily have to go along with an improvement of its mileage. In here the ratio of energy to overcome rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, acceleration and energy wasted directly in wheel brakes is responsible for potentially differing trends.A detailed knowledge of energy flows, sources and sinks makes up a substantial step into optimizing any drive train. Most fuel energy leaves the drivetrain via exhaust pipes. Next to usable mechanical energy, a big amount is spent to heat up the system directly or to overcome drive train friction, which is converted into heat to warm up the system additionally. An in depth quantification of the most important energy flows for an upper middle-sized class gasoline powered drive train is given as results of warm-up cycle simulations. Combustion engine heat losses are split into four paths to be compared with the heat of ten engine friction components. Total engine friction of engines, started at room temperature in low load cycles used for emission…
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Determination of Radiated Sound Power from an Electric Rear Axle Drive In-Situ and its Contribution to Interior Noise

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Luleå University of Technology-Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen, Anders Ågren
Volvo Car Corporation, NVH Center-David Lennström
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-9120
Published 2013-11-20 by SAE International in United States
System and component target setting for noise and vibration are important activities within automotive product development. New challenges arise when electric motors are introduced into cars traditionally powered by combustion engines. The emitted noise from an electric traction motor for hybrid electric vehicles is characterized by high frequency tonal components from the dominating magnetic harmonics which can be perceived as annoying. Sound power is frequently used for quantifying the airborne noise from rotating electrical machines. This paper describes the process of determining the radiated sound power from an automobile electric rear axle drive in-situ and its contribution to interior cabin noise for a prominent rotor order. The sound power was calculated by combining the average stator surface vibration velocity together with an estimate of the radiation efficiency. To model the radiation efficiency, the vibration shape of the cylindrically shaped stator shell was determined by means of operational deflection shapes. The acoustic transfer functions between the source and receiver positions close to a passenger's ear, were defined as the ratio of sound pressure and sound power.…
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Start/Stop Strategies for Two-Wheelers in the Emerging Markets

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Bosch India Ltd.-Pramod R, Prashanth Anantha
Robert Bosch GmbH-Bernd Heinzmann, Simon Scholz
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9125
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1].In order to add more flexibility to the engine management systems and provide additional fuel economy benefit the following strategies were numerically simulated and later validated on a chassis dynamometer: 1Start/Stop: Engine is switched off at a stop while neutral gear is selected.2Stop-in-gear: Engine is switched off at a stop in any gear.3Idle Coasting: Engine is idling but disengaged from the transmission during coasting.4Start/Stop Coasting: Engine is switched off and…
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Development of Estimation for Strain in Damages of Motorcycle Engine Parts When Tipped Over from Stationary State

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Shigesato Nakamura, Hisayoshi Ogura, Kota Noguchi, Yasuhiro Miyazaki
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-32-9096
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this research, a simulation method was developed in which it was able to estimate, in the early stage of design, the strains that potentially lead to damages to motorcycle engine parts when tipped over from a stationary state.Splitting a series of phenomena from the start of tilting of motorcycle from the upright position up to the end of collision of engine parts after the contact on the ground to two groups by before and after the contact of engine parts on the ground, we applied the multi body dynamics analysis to the first group, and the elastro-plastic FEM analysis to the latter one. In the computer simulation of collision using the elastro-plastic FEM analysis, we minimized the FEM models from the entire motorcycle models and treated others as a solid model to shorten the computation period. It is also realized that the strains occurring in the engine parts can be simulated by considering only the mass of the parts which are rigidly mounted on the engine.The developed simulation method allows remarkable reduction of analysis…
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Robust Feedback Tracking Controller Design for Self-Energizing Clutch Actuator of Automated Manual Transmission

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Hyundai Motors-Jinsung Kim
KAIST-Jiwon Oh, Seibum Choi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2587
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
This study mainly focuses on developing an accurate tracking controller for the self-energizing clutch actuator (SECA) system consisting of a DC motor with an encoder applied on the automated manual transmission (AMT). In the position-based actuation of the SECA, abruptly increasing torque near the clutch kissing point during the clutch engagement process induces control input saturation and jerky response when a conventional feedback controller is applied. The proposed work resolves such issue and significantly increases the control accuracy of the actuator through the development of an effective H-infinity controller. The control performance is shown to be more effective than a simple PID controller via simulation and experiments using an AMT test bench equipped with SECA aided by d-SPACE and Matlab/Simulink.
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Clamping Force Control for Dry-Type Dual Clutch Transmission Using Kissing Point Estimation

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Sungkyunkwan Univ.-Sunghyun Ahn, Sungwha Hong
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2585
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a kissing point estimation is proposed for a 2-speed dry-type dual clutch transmission. The kissing point estimation is performed using the gradient change of the motor actuator torque and rotational displacement. Using the kissing point estimation, clamping force control is proposed, and its performance is investigated by the simulator of electric vehicle with 2-speed dry-type dual clutch transmission. It is found from the simulation results that the shift quality can be maintained by the clamping force control using the kissing point estimation.
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Engineered Surface Features for Brake Discs to Improve Performance in Fade Conditions

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors LLC-David B. Antanaitis
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2039
Published 2013-09-30 by SAE International in United States
Driving on the race track is an especially grueling situation for the automotive brake system. Temperatures can exceed the phase transition temperature of the disc material, wear rates of friction material can be orders of magnitude higher than during street use, and hydraulic pressures and mechanical stresses on components can approach their design limits. It is a given that friction material under these conditions will wear unevenly - causing taper and cupping wear - and an associated set of performance degradations will occur, including an increase in fluid consumption (pedal travel increase) and loss of mechanical efficiency (pedal force increase). Some high performance vehicles use surface features on brake discs, such as crossdrilling or slotting, to improve apparent friction levels in aggressive use (as well as to add marketing appeal), and generally accept a significant degradation in lining wear characteristics (both in overall wear rates and in the exacerbation of uneven wear behaviors) in order to achieve this. This paper proposes a method of using the elevated wear rates caused by brake disc surface features…
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