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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Experimental Study on Enhanced FXLMS Algorithm for Active Impulsive Noise Control

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Co.-Ming-Ran Lee, Ming Cheng, Wayne Vanhaaften, Takeshi Abe
University of Cincinnati-Guohua Sun, Mingfeng Li, Teik C. Lim
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1951
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
Active noise control (ANC) technique with the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm has proven its efficiency and drawn increasingly interests in vehicle noise control applications. However, many vehicle interior and/or exterior noises are exhibiting non-Gaussian type with impulsive characteristic, such as diesel knocking noise, injector ticking, impulsive crank-train noise, gear rattle, and road bumps, etc. Therefore, the conventional FXLMS algorithm that is based on the assumption of deterministic and/or Gaussian signal may not be appropriate for tackling this type of impulsive noise. In this paper, an ANC system configured with modified FXLMS (MFXLMS) algorithm by adding thresholds on reference and error signal paths is proposed for impulsive noise control. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, an experimental study is conducted in the laboratory. Various impulses with different durations are added in the Gaussian noise to simulate the typical impulsive noise. A series of low pass filters (LPFs) are used to model the various transmission paths, where the multiple reference signals are generated and used for the MFXLMS algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that…
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A Control Allocation Algorithm for Improving the Fail-Safe Performance of an Electric Vehicle Brake System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Beihang Univ.-Chong Feng, Nenggen Ding, Yongling He, Guoyan Xu, Feng Gao
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0187
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The ample electrical power supply makes brake-by-wire technology more suitable for application in electric vehicles than in conventional vehicles. The fail-safe performance of a brake-by-wire system is a key factor regarding its application on production vehicles. A new control allocation algorithm for improving the fail-safe performance of an electric vehicle brake system is proposed. The electric vehicle is equipped with a four-wheel independent brake-by-wire and steer-by-wire system. The main objective of the algorithm is to maintain the vehicle braking performance as close to the desired level as possible by reallocating the control inputs to the actuators in cases of partial or full failure of the brake-by-wire system. The control algorithm is developed using a two degrees of freedom vehicle model. A pseudo control vector is calculated by a sliding mode controller to minimize the difference between the desired and actual vehicle motions. A pseudo-inverse controller then allocates the control inputs according to the pseudo control vector and the failure mode which is assumed to have been determined by some diagnostic algorithms. The control algorithm is…
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System Security and System Safety Engineering: Differences and Similarities and a System Security Engineering Process Based on the ISO 26262 Process Framework

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Chrysler Group LLC-Barbara J. Czerny
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1419
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Today's vehicles contain a number of safety-critical systems designed to help improve overall vehicle safety. Such systems may control vital vehicle functions such as steering, braking and/or propulsion independently of the driver. In today's vehicles, much emphasis has been placed on helping ensure that these safety-critical vehicle systems operate as intended. Applying rigorous system safety engineering principles in developing these safety-critical automotive systems helps ensure that they operate as desired and expected. Less emphasis has been placed to-date on helping ensure cybersecurity of cyber-physical automotive systems. However, this is changing as both the world and the automotive industry become more aware of the potential ramifications of cyber-attacks on vehicles.As with system safety, applying a rigorous system security engineering process to the development of cyber-physical automotive systems is beneficial and will help reduce the likelihood of successful attacks on vehicles. System security and system safety interact with one another and cannot be considered in isolation. However, there are also differences between system security and system safety that require unique engineering activities to be performed to address…
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Intelligent ECU End of Line Testing to Support ISO26262 Functional Safety Requirements

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hanyang Univ.-Il hong Suh
Hyundai KEFICO-Chang Yul Choe, Minho Ro
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0403
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The recent adoption of the ISO26262 Functional Safety Standard has lead to the need for a greater degree of rigor in the technical, organizational and process aspects of electronic ECU engineering. One new facet of this standard also covers (in part 9.7) the analysis of dependent failures at manufacturing time, not only the microcontroller, but also for the plethora of connected system ASICs, input circuits, output drivers and communication devices in the PCB of the ECU. This paper will describe the CAN based end of line ECU self test system that was implemented at a major tier 1 supplier to address the issues of efficiently gaining a high degree of diagnostic coverage of single point faults and latent faults in highly integrated automotive ECUs. It will outline the requirements and demonstrate how a flexible system solution allows not only efficient test of the new design but also addresses the degree of rigor required to be demonstrated when testing a production volume ECU to ISO26262 functional safety standard.
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Development and Implementation of Hardware in the Loop Simulation for Dual Clutch Transmission Control Units

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ferrari Auto SpA-Luca Poggio, Francesco Marcigliano
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Davide Olivi, Enrico Corti, Giorgio Mancini
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0816
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A control oriented model of a Dual Clutch Transmission was developed for real time Hardware In the Loop (HIL) applications. The model is an innovative attempt to reproduce the fast dynamics of the actuation system maintaining a step size large enough for real time applications. The model comprehends a detailed physical description of hydraulic circuit, clutches, synchronizers and gears, and simplified vehicle and internal combustion engine sub-models; a stable real time simulation is achieved with a simplification of the model without losing physical validity. After an offline validation, the model was implemented in a HIL system and connected to the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) via two input-output boards, and to a load plate which comprehends all the actuators. The paper presents a selection of the several tests that have been performed for the development of the DCT controller: electrical failure tests on sensors and actuators, mechanical failure tests on hydraulic valves, clutches and synchronizers, and application tests comprehending all the main features of the control performed by the TCU, i.e. drive away and gear shift…
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Design and Characterization of an E-booster Driven by an High Speed Brushless DC Motor

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Moving Magnet Technologies SA-Stephane Tavernier, Samuel Equoy
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1762
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Engine downsizing has become one of the main strategies to reduce C02 emission. Turbochargers are well-adapted to this purpose but one of their biggest drawbacks is the turbo-lag which reduces the driving comfort especially during acceleration. Electrically driven compressors also known as E-compressor or E-booster could be a well-adapted solution to boost the engine intake pressure in order to reduce the turbo-lag. Since centrifugal compressors operate at high rotational speeds, high speed electric machines are therefore required. To achieve a significant reduction of the turbo-lag, a very fast response time is needed leading to the development of electric machines able to typically spin from idle to 75kRPM in less than 300ms.With 20 years of expertise in the development of innovative brushless DC motors for automotive applications, MMT has recently investigated the design of such high power-high rotation speed motors. After first integrated an electric motor into a turbocharger described in [1], MMT has decided to optimize the complete system in collaboration with SwissAuto Wenko AG, a specialist in the design and characterization of advanced charging…
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An Empirically Based Suggestion for Reformulating the Glance Duration Criteria in NHTSA's Visual-Manual Interaction Guidelines

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Volvo Cars-Mikael Ljung Aust, Sergejs Dombrovskis, Jordanka Kovaceva, Bo Svanberg, Jan ivarsson
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0444
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
NHTSA recently proposed performance guidelines for visual-manual interaction with non-driving related in-vehicle systems. While a commendable effort to reduce distraction related crashes, in part they seem overly strict. In particular, NHTSA proposes that for each driver performing a secondary task, no more than15 % of the off-road eye glances can be longer than 2.0 s, and 21 in 24 drivers must meet this criterion.The applicability of this criterion was assessed in a study using data from two eye-tracker based studies, involving 35 subjects performing a range of secondary tasks on normal roads.Results showed that over tasks, the average off-road glance duration lengths were quite robust within drivers but varied widely between drivers. Off-road glance duration length thus seems more to reflect individual driver attention allocation strategy than in-vehicle task complexity.Also, several drivers failed to meet the suggested criterion. Assuming that their relative prevalence can be generalized to the general driver population, then as many as one in six drivers may display the type of naturally long off-road glances that will make them fail to meet…
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Dual Antenna Diversity System for FM Reception

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

STMicroelectronics-Raed S. Shatara
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0165
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the performance of digital implementation of dual antenna phase diversity system utilizing the Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) and Maximal Ratio Combiner (MRC) and proposes a two -antenna CMA/MRC hybrid algorithm for mobile FM reception. Simulation proved that CMA has superior performance in frequency selective multipath (long-delay) with medium and strong signal conditions. On the other hand, the MRC optimizes the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) output in weak signal conditions. The signal conditions are constantly changing in mobile environment, therefore the appropriate algorithm should be chosen dynamically to optimize signal reception.
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Optimal Sensor Configuration and Fault-Tolerant Estimation of Vehicle States

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors Company-Shih-Ken Chen, Baktiarr Litkouhi
Univ. of Surrey-Saber Fallah
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0175
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses observability of the vehicle states using different sensor configurations as well as fault-tolerant estimation of these states. The optimality of the sensor configurations is assessed through different observability measures and by using a 3-DOF linear vehicle model that incorporates yaw, roll and lateral motions of the vehicle. The most optimal sensor configuration is adopted and an observer is designed to estimate the states of the vehicle handling dynamics. Robustness of the observer against sensor failure is investigated. A fault-tolerant adaptive estimation algorithm is developed to mitigate any possible faults arising from the sensor failures. Effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant estimation scheme is demonstrated through numerical analysis and CarSim simulation.
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A Coupled System Simulator for Electric Power Steering System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hitachi Automotive Systems Steering, Ltd-Yoshitaka Sugiyama
Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd-Junnosuke Nakatsugawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0423
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Electric power steering system has been widely used in passenger cars to replace hydraulic power steering system. In this paper, a coupled system simulator for dual-pinion electric power steering system is developed and its dynamics is verified using experimental data. The mechanical subsystem model is developed using mass, spring-damper and experimental data with hysteresis characteristic. For the control subsystem, the controller model is developed by transplanting control program from the controller in real vehicle to the simulator. For the electric subsystem, the motor model is developed using the map of current to torque which is created by magnetic field analysis in advance. The three subsystems are combined to form the complete system simulator and numerical simulation is performed. The simulation results are compared to the experimental data and the error is less than 10%. The coupled EPS system simulator produces accurate predictions of system dynamics and can support engineers in the analysis and design of real system effectively.
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