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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Virtualized Fault Injection Methods in the Context of the ISO 26262 Standard

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Synopsys Inc.-Victor Reyes
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0001
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Software quality is one of the biggest concerns of the automotive industry. Releasing a product with defects and having a recall can have enormous direct and indirect cost for an automotive OEM. In order to improve software quality is not sufficient to only increase the number of tests. It is extremely important to establish more sophisticated tests that can cover corner cases which are not unveiled during normal operation. Typically, corner cases are very difficult to test as those are often only triggered when the underlying hardware fails or the software gets unexpectedly corrupted. How to test those cases, to make sure that the right SW routines are executed and that the system moves back on time to a safe state? Fault-injection methods are typically used to cover a subset of these tests. However, there are quite some limitations on how effective and cost efficient existing methods can be applied for a more extensive coverage.The upcoming ISO 26262 Functional Safety standard defines fault-injection testing as a relevant method to be applied for different parts of…
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Schedule Design to Guarantee Freedom of Interference in Mixed Criticality Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Symtavision GmbH-Christoph Ficek, Kai Richter, Nico Feiertag
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0036
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The integration of mixed-criticality software according to safety standards like ISO 26262 generates new, parasitic mutual effects within the involved software architectures. In this situation, established schedule design patterns like RMS fail to deliver both efficiency and safety, in particular the freedom of interference. In today's practice of building a schedule, certain such measures to fulfill these safety requirements can conflict with efficiency requirements. The target of this paper is to present a sound approach of how to solve such requirement conflicts and to build up schedules that are safe and also efficient. We present a general early-stage procedure to build safe, certifiable, and efficient schedules. The procedure is based on the established design patterns and adds guidelines on how to exploit additional options in both schedule design and software partitioning. This procedure was validated against typical real-world systems and one example is presented.
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Development of a Path-following and a Speed Control Driver Model for an Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Univ of Waterloo-Kiumars Jalali, Steve Lambert, John McPhee
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0250
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A two-passenger all-wheel-drive urban electric vehicle (AUTO21EV) with four in-wheel motors and an active steering system has been designed and developed at the University of Waterloo. In order to evaluate the handling and performance of such a vehicle in the design stage and analyze the effectiveness of different chassis control systems before implementing them in the real vehicle, the simulation of a large number of different open-loop and closed-loop test maneuvers is necessary. Thus, in the simulation environment, not only is a mathematical vehicle model needed for every test maneuver, but a driver model must also be designed to simulate the closed-loop test maneuvers. The role of the driver model is to calculate the control inputs required to successfully follow a predefined path. Such a driver model can be implemented as an inverse dynamics problem or by a representation of a driver that can look ahead, preview the path, and change the steering wheel angle and acceleration or brake pedal positions accordingly. In this regard, a path-following driver model is developed in this work with…
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A Systematic Approach for Load Cycle Generation Based on Real World Indian Drive Profile

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Nabal Kishore Pandey, Satish Thimmalapura, R Ramachandran
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0504
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Within the last decade, due to increasing fuel prices, unstable political situation in major oil producing nations and global warming, there is an increased demand for fuel efficient and environment friendly vehicles. In this context, research is being concentrated in the field of advanced, greener powertrain configurations ranging from hybrids to EVs to fuel cells to HCCI engines. The efficacy for any of the above stated powertrain technology, lies in the optimum component specification. Component specification, operational reliability, & life prediction are highly dependent on the traffic condition, driving nature and vary from country to country. For developing countries, like India, where the traffic & drive pattern are dense & slow moving, there is a dire need for generating load cycle based on Real World Usage Profile (RWUP). The paper will propose a systematic approach to create load cycles in order to derive component specifications for the powertrain based on RWUP. Load cycles refer to the load variation with respect to time for the component based on the vehicle operating condition. This paper will also…
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Benefit Estimation of a Lane Departure Warning System using ASSTREET

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Advanced Solutions Technology JAPAN-Jun Tajima
Toyota Motor Corporation-Shin Tanaka, Tsutomu Mochida
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0289
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
It is known that the collisions caused by lane departure events account for range of percentages among the countries studied. To help prevent such collisions, the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system has started to be introduced in production vehicles, but there is little research on its benefits and limitations so far. In this paper we performed an in-depth analysis of the collisions and driver-related essential variables for the lane-departure collision scenarios and demonstrated the benefit estimation process. The benefit of the LDW system is estimated by comparing lane departure events when the vehicle has no LDW, and how they change with the addition of LDW. The event without LDW was modeled in 5 phases: (1) before departure, (2) starting of the departure, (3) departed the lane, (4) at the impact with an object, and, (5) after the impact. “An extensive analysis was conducted of traffic crash data compiled by the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA). The results of this analysis were used to create models of each phase of an LDW…
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Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors-Paolo Giusto
General Motors Company-Haibo Zeng
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0005
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
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Advanced Firmware Device Manager for Automotive: A Case Study

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Visteon Corp.-Joao H. Silva
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0013
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This article describes a case study on firmware device management for automotive systems. More specifically it describes the objectives for the project, the methods used, results and conclusions.Objectives: The objective is to create an ecosystem to ensure updates to firmware are fast, reliable, and secure and fault tolerant. To achieve this goal, the most advanced technologies in telematics were combined to produce an automotive solution, including: (1) Bootloader; (2) Delta File; (3) File Compression; (4) Encryption; (5) Re-Flash; (6) Bluetooth® wireless technology; (7) USB; and (8) Flash File Systems technologies.Methods: A pilot project was developed from a case study to understand the complexity of the firmware update problem as it relates to the automotive industry. More specifically, to comprehend the bottlenecks we needed to overcome and to implement the best possible solution. Design and speed performance of the critical path were evaluated. Experiments also were conducted to determine where the software spent time. System components were re-designed where the software spent most of its time.Results: This paper describes the concepts behind this study from OEM…
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Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for State-of-Health Assessment of Energy Storage Devices

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Idaho National Laboratory-Jon P. Christophersen
Montana Tech of Univ of Montana-John Morrison
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0657
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Harmonic Compensated Synchronous Detection (HCSD) is a technique that can be used to measure wideband impedance spectra within seconds based on an input sum-of-sines signal having a frequency spread separated by harmonics. The battery (or other energy storage device) is excited with a sum-of-sines current signal that has a duration of at least one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured and synchronously detected at each frequency of interest to determine the impedance spectra. This technique was successfully simulated using a simplified battery model and then verified with commercially available Sanyo lithium-ion cells. Simulations revealed the presence of a start-up transient effect when only one period of the lowest frequency is included in the excitation signal. This transient effect appears to only influence the low-frequency impedance measurements and can be reduced when a longer input signal is used. Furthermore, lithium-ion cell testing has indicated that the transient effect does not seem to impact the charge transfer resistance in the mid-frequency region. The degradation rates for the charge transfer resistance measured from…
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Iterative Learning Control for a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation in a Test Cell

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Colorado School of Mines-Kevin L. Moore
General Motors Company-Hai Wu, Jyh-Shin Chen, Meng-Feng Li, Russell P. Durrett
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0162
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
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GPS Device Comparison for Accident Reconstruction

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hrycay Consulting Engineers Inc-James Hrycay, Jeffrey Golden
Hrycay Consulting Engineers Inc.-Roger Bortolin
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0997
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a navigational tool available to the public, comprising in part a network of satellites in orbit broadcasting signals to GPS receivers on earth. Due in large part to the very accurate clocks in the system, a GPS receiver that receives a number of these signals simultaneously can then establish its location on earth. Some GPS receiver models have the capability to record a history of the latitude and longitude co-ordinates at known times, and these may later be downloaded and viewed on a computer using applicable software. Effectively, this provides the equivalent of a bread crumb trail of the path taken by the receiver, although the frequency of the data points can vary substantially from one model to another, and it may not be adjustable by the user. By plotting the information on a map, the trail can be viewed and the position-time history of the vehicle may become evident. The ability to obtain data from a GPS device that was present in a vehicle during a crash could…
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