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Development of Electric and Range-Extended Electric Vehicles Through Collaboration Partnerships

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

FEV Inc.-Jochem Wolschendorf, Kevin Rzemien, David J. Gian
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2344
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
In the last few years, almost every automotive OEM has announced the development of some sort of electric vehicles. Many of those have already been shown to the public, either as concept vehicles, or as pre-production demonstration vehicles. In order to support the development of this technology, FEV has, over the last 18 months, developed more than 20 different electric, or range-extended electric vehicles. All those vehicles are driving successfully on the road today, either as demonstration or fleet vehicles. The development of those vehicles was only possible through partnerships, and very close cooperation with key suppliers. In contrast to conventional powertrain technology, key components (e.g. battery, traction motor, electric HVAC, inverters) are not yet off-the-shelf technology and need further development and adaptation to the new vehicle concepts. Therefore, the integration of all partners has proven to be key to the rapid development of electric and hybrid vehicle technology.An overview of some of the vehicles which have been developed at FEV is provided. In most cases, those key partners were already involved in the early…
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Connected Vehicle Accelerates Green Driving

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Tsuguo Nobe
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2315
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
After the turn of the century, growing social attention has been paid to environmental concerns, especially the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and it comes down to a personal daily life concern which will affect the purchasing decision of vehicles in the future.Among all the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the transportation industry is the primary target of reduction and almost every automotive company pours unprecedented amounts of money to reengineer the vehicle technologies for better fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emission.Besides those efforts paid for sheer improvements of genuine vehicle technologies, NISSAN testified that “connectivity” with outside servers contributed a lot to reduce fuel consumption, thus the less emission of GHG, with two major factors; 1. detouring the traffic congestions with the support of probe-based real-time traffic information and 2. providing Eco-driving advices for the better driving behavior to prompt the better usage of energy.This article explains how the connected vehicle via network realized the reduction of fuel consumption and, thus, CO2 emission in real-life deployments in Japan and China.
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Cybercars for Sustainable Urban Mobility - A European Collaborative Approach

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Inria/Imara-Michel Parent
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2345
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
We know that the existing urban transport systems based on the private vehicle (necessarily relying mostly on fossil fuels) are not sustainable in terms of energy and land needs. On the other hand, public transportation systems are also not very efficient and do not provide a good service anywhere and anytime.Over the last twenty years, a new concept has emerged through strong cooperation between researchers, automotive companies, suppliers and transit operators. It is the concept of co-modal systems. This means well-designed systems that will combine the use of various transportation modes and in particular the individual vehicles and the mass transit systems. A key element of such a system is the Cybernetic Transportation Systems (CTS), which are based on fully automated urban vehicles. This paper will present these CTS and how they have emerged through a European collaborative approach.These environmental-friendly novel systems offer far-reaching solutions that will drastically mitigate or solve the problems that we encounter in current urban transportation systems. They will yield much more effective organization of the urban mobility, with a more…
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Maximizing Net Present Value of a Series PHEV by Optimizing Battery Size and Vehicle Control Parameters

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Argonne National Laboratory-R. Vijayagopal, J. Kwon, A. Rousseau
The MathWorks Inc.-P. Maloney
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2310
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
For a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), it is critical that batteries be sized to maximize vehicle performance variables, such as fuel efficiency, gasoline savings, and zero emission capability. The wide range of design choices and the cost of prototype vehicles calls for a development process to quickly and systematically determine the design characteristics of the battery pack, including its size, and vehicle-level control parameters that maximize the net present value (NPV) of a vehicle during the planning stage. Argonne National Laboratory has developed Autonomie, a modeling and simulation framework. With support from The MathWorks, Argonne has integrated an optimization algorithm and parallel computing tools to enable the aforementioned development process. This paper presents a study that utilized the development process, where the NPV is the present value of all the future expenses and savings associated with the vehicle. The initial investment on the battery and the future savings that result from reduced gasoline consumption are compared. The investment and savings results depend on the battery size and the vehicle usage. For each battery…
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Digital Maps, Connectivity and Electric Vehicles - Enhancing the EV/PHEV Ownership Experience

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

NAVTEQ-Kevin Moran, Brendan Foley, Ulrich Fastenrath, Jeff Raimo
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2316
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
Electrification of the automobile is a growing trend and will create both challenges and opportunities for the vehicle manufacturer, road network infrastructure and driver. In addition to innovative fundamental battery and power transfer technologies, electric vehicles will integrate unique driver interfaces, road intelligence, traffic awareness and wireless data communication to provide a complete support system. This networked vehicle will improve efficiency, increase cruising range and contribute to the overall driving enjoyment of an electric or plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle. Through tailored applications created by content and service providers the driver will identify the most efficient travel routes, learn efficient driving behaviors, avoid energy-wasting situations, locate charging stations and have confidence in reaching a destination and returning home. Using map-based predictive technology, vehicle power controls will become more efficient through knowledge of road terrain, traffic controls and regeneration opportunities. In fact, research demonstrates that connected hybrid electric vehicles using digital map information can demonstrate energy savings on the order of 25%.
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Enabling Safety and Mobility through Connectivity

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ricardo Inc.-Chris Domin
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2318
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) networks within the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) lead to safety and mobility improvements in vehicle road traffic. This paper presents case studies that support the realization of the ITS architecture as an evolutionary process, beginning with driver information systems for enhancing feedback to the users, semi-autonomous control systems for improved vehicle system management, and fully autonomous control for improving vehicle cooperation and management. The paper will also demonstrate how the automotive, telecom, and data and service providers are working together to develop new ITS technologies.
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An Efficient Implementation of the SM Agreement Protocol for a Time Triggered Communication System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors-Markus Jochim, Thomas M. Forest
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2320
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
FlexRay is a time triggered automotive communication protocol that connects ECUs (Electronic Control Units) on which distributed automotive applications are executed. If exact agreement (e.g. on physical values measured by redundant sensors on different ECUs) must be reached in the presence of asymmetric communication faults, a byzantine agreement protocol like Signed Messages (SM) can be utilized. This paper gives examples of how byzantine faults can emerge in a FlexRay-based system and proposes optimizations for a FlexRay-specific implementation of the SM protocol. The protocol modifications allow for a reduction in the number of protocol messages under a slightly relaxed fault model, as well as for a reduction in the number of messages to be temporarily stored by the ECUs.
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F-35 Lightning II Cockpit Vision

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company-Michael Skaff
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2330
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
A brief explanation of the design iterations and philosophy used to integrate the pilot into the F-35 Lightning II cockpit to achieve optimum Pilot Vehicle Interface (PVI), manageable single seat workload, and superior situation awareness.
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Sensor Data Fusion for Active Safety Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Robert Bosch GmbH-Jorge Sans Sangorrin, Jan Sparbert, Ulrike Ahlrichs, Wolfgang Branz
Robert Bosch LLC-Oliver Schwindt
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2332
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
Active safety systems will have a great impact in the next generation of vehicles. This is partly originated by the increasing consumer's interest for safety and partly by new traffic safety laws. Control actions in the vehicle are based on an extensive environment model which contains information about relevant objects in vehicle surroundings. Sensor data fusion integrates measurements from different surround sensors into this environment model. In order to avoid system malfunctions, high reliability in the interpretation of the situation, and therefore in the environment model, is essential. Hence, the main idea of data fusion is to make use of the advantages of using multiple sensors and different technologies in order to fulfill these requirements, which are especially high due to autonomous interventions in vehicle dynamics (e. g. automatic emergency braking). The technical challenge in the development of a serial product relies in the implementation with given sensors, as well as in the risk assessment of the system.
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Future Testing of Active Safety Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

TNO Automotive-Falke Hendriks, Riné Pelders, Martijn Tideman
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2334
Published 2010-10-19 by SAE International in United States
Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are added to existing comfort systems, rather than adding new safety systems to the vehicle. Comfort systems such as cruise control are extended via ACC to pre-crash braking systems. Testing of active safety systems must follow these developments. Whereas standardized test programs are available for passive safety systems, such test programs are hardly available yet for active safety systems. Furthermore, test programs for passive safety systems consist of only a handful of scenarios. Test programs for active safety systems, however, should consist of much more scenarios, as those systems should function well in many different situations. It is not feasible to assess the intelligent vehicle safety (IVS) system's performance in all these scenarios by means of test-track testing. To speed up the introduction of active safety systems, there is a need for an efficient standardized…
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