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Automated ASIL Allocation and Decomposition according to ISO 26262, Using the Example of Vehicle Electrical Systems for Automated Driving

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Robert Bosch GmbH-Patrick Münzing, Oliver Koller
University of Stuttgart-AndreasBernd OstertagBertsche
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-02-0011
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
ISO 26262 needs to be considered when developing safety-relevant E/E systems within the automotive industry. One part of the development process according to ISO 26262 is the derivation of the safety requirements for component functions. Here, one attribute of the safety requirements is the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). The ASIL at a component level can be determined using ASIL allocation and decomposition. Considering complex systems such as vehicle electrical systems, countless possibilities can be identified for how the ASILs at a component level can be assigned in line with safety goals. In terms of efficiency, manual assignment is not expedient. Therefore, an algorithm for automated assignment of the ASILs will be introduced which considers constraints based on a fault tree analysis. The function of the approach will be demonstrated using the example of a vehicle electrical system from an automated vehicle.
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Parasitic Battery Drain Problems and AUTOSAR Acceptance Testing

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Visteon Technical and Services Center (VTSC)-Anandan Thiyagaraj
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-02-0013
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
Battery Drain problems can occur in the vehicle due to improper network management between electronic control units (ECUs). Aim of this article is to identify the factors that cause transmission and cease of transmission of a network management message of an ECU along with its application messages that controls the sleep/wake-up performance of other ECUs in the network. Strategy used here is, based on the root cause analysis of problems found in Display unit in vehicle environment, the functional CAN signals impacting sleep/wake-up behavior is re-mapped along with the state flow transition of AUTOSAR NM Algorithm. A re-defined test case design and simulation for vehicle model is created. Especially it focuses on validating the impact of functional CAN signals on DUT’s sleep/wake-up performance. The result includes, design and development of use case matrix(mapped with specification) to validate the impact of network management messages, its flow of transition as well as the impact of functional CAN messages on the sleep/wake-up behavior of DUT and on the system as a whole. Also a new set of system…
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Optimal Electric Vehicle Design Tool Using Genetic Algorithms

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Gabes University-Saber Hadj Abdallah
Sfax University-Souhir Tounsi
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-02-0010
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
The proposed approach present the development of a computer tool that allows, in the first phase, the modeling of the electric vehicle power chain. This phase is based on a library developed under the Matlab-Simulink simulation environment. This library contains all the components of the power chain; it offers the selection of the desired configuration of each component. In the second phase, the tool solves the autonomy optimization problem. This problem is resolved by a program based on genetic algorithms. This program permits to optimize the configuration parameters maximizing the vehicle autonomy of the chosen chain. This tool is based on a graphical interface developed under the Matlab simulation environment.
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Experimental Study on the Internal Resistance and Heat Generation Characteristics of Lithium Ion Power Battery with NCM/C Material System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Beijing Institute of Technology-Jing Wang, Chuncheng Liu, Yuefeng Su, Shi Chen, Feng Wu
China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd.-Shiqiang Liu, Chunjing Lin, Fang Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-02-0012
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
Heat generation characteristics of lithium ion batteries are vital for both the optimization of the battery cells and thermal management system design of battery packs. Compared with other factors, internal resistance has great influence on the thermal behavior of Li-ion batteries. Focus on a 3 Ah pouch type battery cell with the NCM/C material system, this article quantitatively evaluates the battery heat generation behavior using an Extended Volume-Accelerating Rate Calorimeter in combination with a battery cycler. Also, internal resistances of the battery cell are measured using both the hybrid pulse power characteristic (HPPC) and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Experimental results show that the overall internal resistance obtained by the EIS method is close to the ohmic resistance measured by the HPPC method. Heat generation power of the battery cell is small during discharge processes lower than 0.5 C-rate. The curve of heat generation power vs. time shows a U-shaped characteristic that displays some symmetry when the current rate is high. Compared with the EIS method, internal resistances measured by the HPPC method have a…
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Scene Structure Classification as Preprocessing for Feature-Based Visual Odometry

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

German Jordanian University-Nathir A. Rawashdeh
University of Michigan - Dearborn-Mohamed Aladem, Stan Baek, Samir A. Rawashdeh
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0610
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Cameras and image processing hardware are rapidly evolving technologies, which enable real-time applications for passenger cars, ground robots, and aerial vehicles. Visual odometry (VO) algorithms estimate vehicle position and orientation changes from the moving camera images. For ground vehicles, such as cars, indoor robots, and planetary rovers, VO can augment movement estimation from rotary wheel encoders. Feature-based VO relies on detecting feature points, such as corners or edges, in image frames as the vehicle moves. These points are tracked over frames and, as a group, estimate motion. Not all detected points are tracked since not all are found in the next frame. Even tracked features may not be correct since a feature point may map to an incorrect nearby feature point. This can depend on the driving scenario, which can include driving at high speed or in the rain or snow. This article investigates the effect of image structural content on the performance of feature tracking and motion estimation from known VO algorithms. As a preprocessing step, the image frame is divided into regions of…
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Simulation of Arc Quenching in Hermetically Sealed Electric Vehicle Relays

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Esgee Technologies-Anand Karpatne, Douglas Breden
University of Texas at Austin-Laxminarayan Raja
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0765
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this work is to investigate arc quenching in electric vehicle relays using high-fidelity computational modeling. Rapid arc quenching is an essential quality of state-of-the-art high-voltage mechanical relays in electric vehicles. As a relay begins to break electrical contact, strong arcing can occur. This delays the process of sending a signal to the primary circuit breaker to isolate the load from a sudden current surge. The strength and duration of the arc have a significant impact on the safety of electric vehicles as well as on relay contactor erosion/lifetime. A thermal plasma modeling tool is used to estimate switch-off time in an arc relay using hydrogen and air as working gases. The response of arc dynamics and switch-off time to the gas composition, external magnetic field strength, and chamber pressure is studied. It was observed that a hermetically sealed chamber filled with hydrogen is significantly more efficient than air at quenching the arc. A stronger magnetic field was seen to enhance arc stretch to the wall which rapidly quenches the arc. Further, decreasing…
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Application of Transient Magnetic Fields to a Magnetosensitive Device

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

General Motors LLC-Michael Mandziuk, Laura Ball, Scott Piper
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1349
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
EMC Component Validation Responsibilities encompass many realms. One of these realms is the effect of magnetic fields on silicon-based devices. This article describes a method for exposing these devices to magnetic fields with waveforms other than the traditional sinusoidal excitation.The method commonly used to explore the sensitivity of active silicon devices is exposure of the device to a representative sinusoidal field and observation of its reaction or lack thereof. The challenge is to characterize the representative field and be able to verify its effectiveness. Recent vehicle level testing of new designs has brought our attention to time-varying or transient magnetic field shapes that create deviations not previously detected with Military Standard 461 (MIL-STD-461) type sinusoidal magnetic field exposure. A facsimile of a number of existing and well-known vehicle transients are excited through a physical and simulated system to prepare representative and repeatable transient inputs for use with existing lab equipment.
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Pre-Shaping Bursty Transmissions under IEEE802.1Q as a Simple and Efficient QoS Mechanism

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Groupe Renault-Josetxo Villanueva
Onera-Marc Boyer
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0756
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is swiftly moving toward Ethernet as the high-speed communication network for in-vehicle communication. There is nonetheless a need for protocols that go beyond what standard Ethernet has to offer in order to provide additional quality of service (QoS) to demanding applications such as advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) or audio/video streaming. The main protocols currently considered for that purpose are IEEE802.1Q, audio video bridging (AVB) with the credit-based shaper (CBS) mechanism (IEEE802.1Qav), and time-sensitive networking (TSN) with its time-aware shaper (TAS) (IEEE802.1Qbv). AVB/CBS and TSN/TAS both provide efficient QoS mechanisms, and they can be used in a combined manner, which offers many possibilities to the designer. Their use however requires dedicated hardware and software components and clock synchronization in the case of TAS. Previous studies have also shown that the efficiency of these protocols depends much on the application at hand and the value of the configuration parameters. In this work, we explore the use of “pre-shaping” strategies under IEEE802.1Q for bursty traffic such as audio/video streams as a simple and efficient alternative…
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Personalized Controller Design for Electric Power Steering System Based on Driver Behavior

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Dongfeng Auto-Ning Bian
Jilin University-Bing Zhu, Shude Yan, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-02-0008
Published 2017-09-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric power steering (EPS) system is a kind of dynamic control system for vehicle steering, which can amplify the driver steering torque inputs to the vehicle to improve steering comfortable and performance, but the present EPS can’t cater to the driving habits of different people. In this article, a personalized EPS controller is designed based on the driver behavior, which combines real-time driver behavior identification strategy with personalized assistance characteristic. Firstly, the driver behavior data acquisition system is designed and established, based on which, the input data of different kinds of drivers along with vehicle signals are collected under typical working conditions, then the identification of driver behavior online is realized using the BP neural network. Secondly, the personalized assistance characteristic curve is selected according to the identification results, and the close loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategies and pulse width modulation (PWM) method are adopted to control the target current of the motor of the EPS system. Finally, the co-simulation of Simulink and Carsim are carried out, and the results show that personalized electric power…
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2-D CFAR Procedure of Multiple Target Detection for Automotive Radar

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Automotive Sensors Group-Libo Huang
Tongji University-Sen Li, Xin Bi, Bin Tan
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-01-0007
Published 2017-09-23 by SAE International in United States
In Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS), the automotive radar is used to detect targets or obstacles around the vehicle. The procedure of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) plays an important role in adaptive targets detection in noise or clutter environment. But in practical applications, the noise or clutter power is absolutely unknown and varies over the change of range, time and angle. The well-known cell averaging (CA) CFAR detector has a good detection performance in homogeneous environment but suffers from masking effect in multi-target environment. The ordered statistic (OS) CFAR is more robust in multi-target environment but needs a high computation power. Therefore, in this paper, a new two-dimension CFAR procedure based on a combination of Generalized Order Statistic (GOS) and CA CFAR named GOS-CA CFAR is proposed. Besides, the Linear Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (LFMCW) radar simulation system is built to produce a series of rapid chirp signals. Then the echo signals are converted into a two-dimensional Range-Doppler matrix (RDM), which contains information about the targets as well as background clutter and noise, through…
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