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SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars Electronic and Electrical Systems
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Adaptive Network Trained Controller for Automotive Steering Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

CARET, Aligarh Muslim University-Mohammad Saad Alam
Hyundai America Technical Center-Rakaan Chabaan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9626
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Electrical Power Assist Steering (EPAS) systems are currently eliminating the traditional hydraulic steering systems in vehicles. EPAS systems are nonlinear Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) systems with multiple objectives, including fast response to the driver torque command, good driver feel, and attenuation of load disturbance and sensor noises. Optimal control method is employed to design EPAS system controllers for improved performance and robustness. But these controllers have showed acceptable performance for certain operating conditions and undesired steering feel for high steering gain. In this work, the neural networks are used which replace the optimal controllers of EPAS systems. A Euclidean adaptive resonance theory (EART) networks is trained according to the data collected from an H∞ optimal controller. The collected data represent the controller input and output signals. The said data are normalized and clustered into categories in the EART modules. The modules are interconnected by a map field. Once the training is accomplished, the EART controller replaces the optimal controller. The proposed controller provides improved robustness and comparatively high steering feel of EPAS system by…
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3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Luleå University of Technology-André Lundkvist, Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen, Jakob Stridfelt
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9627
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available. Both normal parking and parallel parking was conducted. Time taken for parking and the number of obstacles/curb hits were recorded. Participants answered a NASA TLX questionnaire after evaluating each PAS for…
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-Design and Control of Switching Synchronous Motor Dedicated to Electric Cars - Motorization

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Sfax University-Souhir Tounsi
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9625
Published 2017-04-11 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
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Systems Engineering Approach for Voice Recognition in the Car

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Company-Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte Richardson, Scott Amman, An Ji, John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1599
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a systems engineering approach is explored to evaluate the effect of design parameters that contribute to the performance of the embedded Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) engine in a vehicle. This includes vehicle designs that influence the presence of environmental and HVAC noise, microphone placement strategy, seat position, and cabin material and geometry. Interactions can be analyzed between these factors and dominant influencers identified. Relationships can then be established between ASR engine performance and attribute performance metrics that quantify the link between the two. This helps aid proper target setting and hardware selection to meet the customer satisfaction goals for both teams.
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A Tailgate(Trunk) Control System Based on Acoustic Patterns

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hyundai Motor Company-Hui Sung Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1634
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
When customers use a tailgate (or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human’s rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc. The AUI is a technology that can extend…
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Performance of DSRC during Safety Pilot Model Deployment

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

FAW Group Corporation - China-Jun Li, Shaobo Qiu, Bin Liu
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor-Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao, David LeBlanc
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0077
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides an analysis of how communication performance between vehicles using Dedicated Short-range Communication (DSRC) devices varies by antenna mounting, vehicle relative positions and orientations, and between receiving devices. DSRC is a wireless technology developed especially for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. A frequency band near 5.9 GHz has been set aside in the US and other countries for exploring safety and other uses for road vehicles. DSRC devices installed onboard vehicles broadcast their location using global navigation space systems (GNSS), speed, heading, and other information. This can be used to study communication performance in many scenarios including: car-following situations, rear-end crash avoidance, oncoming traffic situations, left turn advisory, head-on crash avoidance and do-not-pass warnings. Message Capture Fraction and Packet Loss Duration highlight how these measures change with distance and orientation of the vehicles. Data used in this study address four years of real-world use with over 2500 vehicles, with antennas primarily in an aftermarket-style installation.
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Design of a 5.9 GHz High Directivity Planar Antenna Using Topology Optimization for V2V Applications

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Altair Engineering-Aseim Elfrgani, C. J. Reddy
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1691
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
A low profile high directivity antenna is designed to operate at 5.9 GHz for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications to ensure connectivity in different propagation channels. Patch antennas are still an ongoing topic of interest due to their advantages: low profile, low cost, and ease of fabrication. One disadvantage of the patch antenna is low directivity which results in low range performance. In this paper, we introduce an efficient and novel way to improve the directivity of patch antenna using topology optimization and design of experiments (DoE). Numerical simulations are done using Method of Moments (MoM) technique in the commercially available tool, FEKO. We use global response surface method (GRSM) for double objectives topology optimization. Numerical results show a promising use of topology optimization and DoE techniques for the systematic design of high directivity of low profile single element patch antennas. The optimized directivity is 10.4 dBi, which is 3 dB higher than the directivity of the original patch antenna.
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Reliable Infrastructural Urban Traffic Monitoring Via Lidar and Camera Fusion

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Virginia Tech-Yi Tian, Hangxin Liu, Tomonari Furukawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0083
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel infrastructural traffic monitoring approach that estimates traffic information by combining two sensing techniques. The traffic information can be obtained from the presented approach includes passing vehicle counts, corresponding speed estimation and vehicle classification based on size. This approach uses measurement from an array of Lidars and video frames from a camera and derives traffic information using two techniques. The first technique detects passing vehicles by using Lidars to constantly measure the distance from laser transmitter to the target road surface. When a vehicle or other objects pass by, the measurement of the distance to road surface reduces in each targeting spot, and triggers detection event. The second technique utilizes video frames from camera and performs background subtraction algorithm in each selected Region of Interest (ROI), which also triggers detection when vehicle travels through each ROI. Based on detection events, vehicle location is estimated respectively. The final location estimation is derived by fusing the two estimation in the framework of Recursive Bayesian Estimation (RBE). Vehicle counts, speed estimation and classification are…
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Validation of In-Vehicle Speech Recognition Using Synthetic Mixing

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ford Motor Company-John Huber, Ranjani Rangarajan, An Ji, Francois Charette, Scott Amman, Joshua Wheeler, Brigitte Richardson
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1693
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a method to validate in-vehicle speech recognition by combining synthetically mixed speech and noise samples with batch speech recognition. Vehicle cabin noises are prerecorded along with the impulse response from the driver's mouth location to the cabin microphone location. These signals are combined with a catalog of speech utterances to generate a noisy speech corpus. Several factors were examined to measure their relative importance on speech recognition robustness. These include road surface and vehicle speed, climate control blower noise, and driver's seat position. A summary of the main effects from these experiments are provided with the most significant factors coming from climate control noise. Additionally, a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) experiment was conducted highlighting the inverse relationship with speech recognition performance.
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Prediction Method for Automobile EMI Test Result in AM Frequency Band

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

DENSO Corporation-Takashi Nomura, Kazuma Kawai
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0014
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The EMI, electromagnetic interference, is tested for automobiles and components by the method defined in the international standard, CISPR 25. Regarding the automobile test, the EMI from the component installed in the automobile is measured by the antenna of an automobile. On the other hand on the component test, the EMI from the component is measured by a mono-pole antenna set forward of the component. However, components sometimes fail the automobile test even if its passed the component test due to the difference of the method. In this case, the component has to be designed again to pass the automobile test. Therefore, the prediction method of the automobile test result is required. In this paper, we tried to modify the standard component test configuration to predict the automobile test result for a fuel pump system in AM frequency band. At first, to show the noise propagation mechanism of the automobile test, the mechanism was modeled by an electrical circuit by focusing on the parasitic capacitances between the fuel pump system, the antenna and the chassis.…
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