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Classification of Contact Forces in Human-Robot Collaborative Manufacturing Environments

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Nottingham-Ran Zhao, Svetan Ratchev
Université de Franche-Comté-Adrien Drouot
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0001
Published 2018-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a machine learning application of the force/torque sensor in a human-robot collaborative manufacturing scenario. The purpose is to simplify the programming for physical interactions between the human operators and industrial robots in a hybrid manufacturing cell which combines several robotic applications, such as parts manipulation, assembly, sealing and painting, etc. A multiclass classifier using Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) is first introduced in a robotic application for discriminating five different contact states w.r.t. the force/torque data. A systematic approach to train machine-learning based classifiers is presented, thus opens a door for enabling LightGBM with robotic data process. The total task time is reduced largely because force transitions can be detected on-the-fly. Experiments on an ABB force sensor and an industrial robot demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
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Lightweight Carbon Composite Chassis for Engine Start Lithium Batteries

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Meggitt Composites-Dennis Moxley
Meggitt PLC-Thomas Black
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0003
Published 2018-03-07 by SAE International in United States
The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance. This application of the technology outlined in this paper pertains to an engine-start battery chassis. However, strategically embedding metallic mesh within composite materials may be utilized in numerous other applications of aviation electronics enclosures.
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Evaluation of Thermal Roll Formed Thick Composite Panels Using Surface NDT Methods

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Airbus UK-Harvey Brookes, Jon Wright
University of Nottingham-Patrick Land, Petros Stavroulakis, Richard Crossley, Patrick Bointon, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0005
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Inspection of Composite panels is vital to the assessment of their ability to be fit for purpose. Conventional methods such as X-ray CT and Ultrasonic scanning can be used, however, these are often expensive and time consuming processes. In this paper we investigate the use of off-the-shelf Non-Destructive Test, NDT, equipment utilizing Fringe projection hardware and open source software to rapidly evaluate a series of composite panels. These results are then verified using destructive analysis of the panels to prove the reliability of the rapid NDT methods for use with carbon composite panels. This process allows us to quickly identify regions of geometric intolerance or formed defects without the use of expensive sub-surface scanning systems, enabling a fast and cost effective initial part evaluation system. The focus of this testing series is on 6mm thick pre-preg carbon-epoxy composite laminates that have been laid up using AFP and formed using TRF.
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Metallurgical Approach for Improving Life and Brinell Resistance in Wheel Hub Units

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

ILJIN Group-Seonho Lee, Yoongil Choi, Kyuntaek Cho, Hyounsoo Park
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0008
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Raceway Brinell damage is one major cause of wheel bearing (hub unit) noise during driving. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) customers have asked continuously for its improvement to the wheel bearing supply base. Generally, raceway Brinelling in a wheel hub unit is a consequence of metallic yielding from high external loading in a severe environment usually involving a side impact to the wheel and tire. Thus, increasing the yielding strength of steel can lead to higher resistance to Brinell damage. Both the outer ring and hub based on Generation 3 (Gen. 3) wheel unit are typically manufactured using by AISI 1055 bearing quality steel (BQS); these components undergo controlled cooling to establish the core properties then case hardening via induction hardening (IH). This paper presents a modified grade of steel and its IH design that targets longer life and improves Brinell resistance developed by ILJIN AMRC (Advanced Materials Research Center). And also, this focuses on demonstrating the improved Brinell resistance using exclusive Brinelling test. The strengthening mechanism is the fine grains generated by restriction of grain…
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Increased Thread Load Capability of Bolted Joints in Light Weight Design

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Siegen-Tobias Hoernig
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0002
Published 2017-06-29 by SAE International in United States
Within the scope of today’s product development in automotive engineering, the aim is to produce lighter and solid parts with higher capabilities. On the one hand lightweight materials such as aluminum or magnesium are used, but on the other hand, increased stresses on these components cause higher bolt forces in joining technology. Therefore screws with very high strength rise in importance. At the same time, users need reliable and effective design methods to develop new products at reasonable cost in short time. The bolted joints require a special structural design of the thread engagement in low-strength components. Hence an extension of existing dimensioning of the thread engagement for modern requirements is necessary. In the context of this contribution, this will be addressed in two ways: on one hand extreme situations (low strength nut components and high-strength fasteners) are considered. On the other hand the thread reinforcement by use of wired thread inserts is investigated, which can improve the pull-out-force of the thread. A verified and manageable dimensioning method for thread engagement in lightweight design with…
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Interference between Tin Sulfides, Graphite and Novolak Oxidation

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

QUARTZ S.r.l. s.u.-Roberto Dante, Andrea Sliepcevich, Marco Andreoni, Mario Cotilli
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0009
Published 2017-03-07 by SAE International in United States
Tin sulfides (SnS and SnS2), represent a safer and greener alternative to other metal sulfides such as copper sulfides, and MoS2 etc. Their behavior is usually associated to that of solid lubricants such as graphite. A mixture of tin sulfides, with the 65 wt% of SnS2, has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In order to investigate the effect of tin sulfides upon two crucial friction material ingredients, two mixtures were prepared: the former was made by mixing tin sulfides with a natural flake graphite and the latter was made mixing tin sulfides with a straight novolak. They were analyzed by TGA and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in both nitrogen and air. Some interferences were detected between tin sulfides and graphite in air. However, the oxidation of tin sulfides was concomitant with that of the novolak so that the resin onset decomposition-oxidation was considerably shifted to higher temperatures allowing the resin to work as a binder also in a critical temperature range. This is an additional benefit of tin…
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Effects of Reflux Temperature and Molarity of Acidic Solution on Chemical Functionalization of Helical Carbon Nanotubes

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Wichita State University-Sean Taklimi, Ali Ghazinezami, Kim Cluff PhD, Davood Askari
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0004
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
The use of nanomaterials and nanostructures have been revolutionizing the advancements of science and technology in various engineering and medical fields. As an example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively used for the improvement of mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and deteriorative properties of traditional composite materials for applications in high-performance structures. The exceptional materials properties of CNTs (i.e., mechanical, magnetic, thermal, and electrical) have introduced them as promising candidates for reinforcement of traditional composites. Most structural configurations of CNTs provide superior material properties; however, their geometrical shapes can deliver different features and characteristics. As one of the unique geometrical configurations, helical CNTs have a great potential for improvement of mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymeric resin composites. The coil spring shape of these CNTs give them the capability to withstand high loads and considerable deformations that can be recovered, upon unloading. In addition, due to their helical shape, the entanglement of these CNTs with each other and the polymeric crosslinked molecular chains is much higher compared to the straight CNTs. Therefore, they can potentially…
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Studies on Friction Mechanism of NAO Brake-Pads Containing Potassium Titanate Powder as a Theme Ingredient

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Indian Institute of Technology-Vishal Mahale, Jayashree Bijwe, Sujeet Sinha
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0006
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Potassium titanate (KT) fibers/whiskers are used as a functional filler for partial replacement of asbestos in NAO friction materials (FMs). Based on little information reported in open literature; its exact role is not well defined since some papers claim it as the booster for resistance to fade (FR), or wear (WR) and sometimes as damper for friction fluctuations. Interestingly, KT fibers and whiskers (but not powder) are proved as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, hardly any efforts are reported on exploration of influence of KT powder and its optimum amount in NAO FMs (realistic composites) in the literature. Hence a series of five realistic multi-ingredient compositions in the form of brake-pads with similar parent composition but varying in the content of KT powder from 0 to 15 wt% (in the steps of 3) were developed. These composites were characterized for physical, mechanical, chemical and tribological performance. Composites were tribo-evaluated on reduced scale prototype (RSP) as well as on full scale brake inertia dynamometer by following ECE R90 and Japanese…
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Disc Pad Physical Properties vs. Porosity: The Question of Compressibility as an Intrinsic Physical Property

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Compact International (1994) Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob
Industrial Measurement Systems Inc.-Donald Yuhas
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-01-0007
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Disc pad physical properties are believed to be important in controlling brake friction, wear and squeal. Thus these properties are carefully measured during and after manufacturing for quality assurance. For a given formulation, disc pad porosity is reported to affect friction, wear and squeal. This investigation was undertaken to find out how porosity changes affect pad natural frequencies, dynamic modulus, hardness and compressibility for a low-copper formulation and a copper-free formulation, both without underlayer, without scorching and without noise shims. Pad natural frequencies, modulus and hardness all continuously decrease with increasing porosity. When pad compressibility is measured by compressing several times as recommended and practiced, the pad surface hardness is found to increase while pad natural frequencies and modulus remain essentially unchanged. However, there is no consistent pattern in compressibility change with increasing porosity, and thus a question arises on the validity of compressibility measurement as an intrinsic physical property measurement. Also after 12-months of ageing at room temperature, all the properties are found to change significantly, but property change trends with increasing porosity remain…
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