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Multi-Physics Simulation of Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Nanotube Speakers

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Michigan Technological University-Mahsa Asgarisabet, Andrew Barnard
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1816
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film. The surface temperature variation is then used to simulate the pressure distribution in the open medium. To validate the model, the results of simulation are compared to the experimental data and traditional lumped-parameter models. From the…
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Life Cycle Analysis of 1995-2014 U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet: The Environmental Implications of Vehicle Material Composition Changes

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Argonne National Laboratory-Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1273
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy. To retrospectively investigate the impact of this potential burden shifting from vehicle operation to vehicle production due to material substitution, historical weights, material compositions, fuel economies, and other characteristics of the U.S. light-duty fleet for 1995-2014 are presented and analyzed in this study. The GHG emissions from vehicle production,…
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Interpolated Selective Area Mechanical Roughening for Thermally Sprayed Engine Bores

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-David A. Stephenson
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0452
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Thermally sprayed engine bores require surface preparation prior to coating to ensure adequate adhesion. Mechanical roughening methods produce repeatable surfaces with high adhesion strength and are attractive for high volume production. The currently available mechanical roughening methods are finish boring based processes which require diameter-specific tooling and significant clearance at the bottom of the bore for tool overtravel and retraction. This paper describes a new mechanical roughening method based on circular interpolation. This method uses two tools: a peripheral milling tool, which cuts a series of concentric grooves in the bore wall through interpolation, and a second rotary tool which deforms the grooves to produce an undercut. This method produces equivalent or higher bond strength than current surface preparation methods, and does not require diameter-specific tooling or bottom clearance for tool retraction. In contrast to boring-based methods, it also permits roughening and coating only a portion of the bore (e. g. the ring travel portion), reducing steel wire and energy consumption and enabling the elimination of a bimetallic cut on the joint face of the…
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Using an Assembly Sequencing Application to React to a Production Constraint: a Case Study

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0242
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this work we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries. When an inevitable delay of receipt of inbound shipment of a particular part is expected, the plant must somehow react to alleviate that…
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Establishing Failure Criterion for Elastomers Through Improved Biaxial Testing

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

MindMesh Inc.-Raju Gandikota
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0488
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Testing elastomeric materials that undergo large strains pose challenges especially when establishing failure criteria. The failure criterion for composites and polymers based on finite elasticity published by Feng (1) requires testing under uniaxial and biaxial stretching modes. The classic inflation of a circular disk for biaxial stretch mode poses stability and safety challenges. The test can also be sensitive to end constraints resulting in failure of materials at the constraints. Biaxial stretching with a hemispherical punch is explored in this work. The biaxial stretching allows controlled and repeatable testing. It establishes a clear and reliable failure mechanism of the material at the poles. Through a combination of testing and numerical methods, the stretch ratios and its relation to failure have been established. The method greatly simplifies testing and provides reliable data for a failure criterion for elastomers in numerical modeling.
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Warranty Forecasting of Repairable Systems for Different Production Patterns

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Themistoklis Koutsellis
FCA US LLC-Mohammad Hijawi, Huairui Guo
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0209
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Warranty forecasting of repairable systems is very important for manufacturers of mass produced systems. It is desired to predict the Expected Number of Failures (ENF) after a censoring time using collected failure data before the censoring time. Moreover, systems may be produced with a defective component resulting in extensive warranty costs even after the defective component is detected and replaced with a new design. In this paper, we present a forecasting method to predict the ENF of a repairable system using observed data which is used to calibrate a Generalized Renewal Processes (GRP) model. Manufacturing of products may exhibit different production patterns with different failure statistics through time. For example, vehicles produced in different months may have different failure intensities because of supply chain differences or different skills of production workers, for example. In addition during the warranty period, there may be a time called “clean point” where a defective component or subsystem is detected and replaced with a new more reliable unit for all products produced thereafter. This introduces a different statistical behavior before…
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Efficiency Improvement by Separation of Vapor and Liquid in Condenser Headers

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Jun Li, Pega Hrnjak
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0180
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces the concept of separation of two-phase flow in condenser as a way to improve condenser efficiency. The benefits of vapor-liquid refrigerant separation and the reason why it will improve the condenser performance are explained. Numerical studies are presented on the effects of separation on performance of an R134a microchannel condenser, with the comparison to experiment data. Model predicts that at the same mass flow rate, the exit temperature is lower by 2.2 K in the separation condenser compared with that in the baseline. Up to 9% more flow rate of condensate is also predicted by the model in the separation condenser. Experiment results confirm the same trend. In addition, the reason why a certain circuiting of passes with pre-assumed separation results in the header improves the condenser is investigated by the model and results are presented.
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Process Integration and Optimization of ICME Carbon Fiber Composites for Vehicle Lightweighting: A Preliminary Development

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Danielle Zeng
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0229
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Process integration and optimization is the key enabler of the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) of carbon fiber composites. In this work, automated workflows are developed for two types of composites: Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) short fiber composites, and multi-layer unidirectional (UD) composites. For SMC, the proposed workflow integrates material processing simulation, microstructure representation volume element (RVE) models, material property prediction and structure preformation simulation to enable multiscale, multidisciplinary analysis and design. Processing parameters, microstructure parameters and vehicle subframe geometry parameters are defined as the design variables; the stiffness and weight of the structure are defined as the responses. For multi-layer UD structure, this work focuses on the discussion of different design representation methods and their impacts on the optimization performance. Challenges in ICME process integration and optimization are also summarized and highlighted. Two case studies are conducted to demonstrate the integrated process and its application in optimization.
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Thermal Response of Aluminum Engine Block During Thermal Spraying of Bores: Comparison of FEA and Thermocouple Results

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Klaus-Peter Heinig, David A. Stephenson, Timothy G. Beyer
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0451
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Thermally sprayed coatings have used in place of iron bore liners in recent aluminum engine blocks. The coatings are steel-based, and are sprayed on the bore wall in the liquid phase. The thermal response of the block structure determines how rapidly coatings can be applied and thus the investment and floor space required for the operation. It is critical not to overheat the block to prevent dimensional errors, metallurgical damage, and thermal stress cracks. This paper describes an innovative finite element procedure for estimating both the substrate temperature and residual stresses in the coating for the thermal spray process. Thin layers of metal at a specified temperature, corresponding to the layers deposited in successive thermal spray torch passes, are applied to the substrate model, generating a heat flux into the block. The thickness, temperature, and application speed of the layers can be varied to simulate different coating cycles. The temperature field in the block is calculated using a transient thermal analysis with convective cooling on exposed surfaces. The stresses in the coating are computed using…
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Gain Customer Insights Using NLP Techniques

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ford Motor Company-Kanna Akella, N. Venkatachalam, K. Gokul, Keunho Choi, Ramachandraprabhu Tyakal
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0245
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Voice of customer is typically captured through multiple connect points like surveys, warranty claims, social media, and so on. Customer verbatim is collected through these connect points to encourage free expression of opinion by customers. Such verbatim data is generally of high value and is typically analyzed using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for translating into influencing actions in manufacturing, customer service, marketing, and product development departments. One of the challenges in analyzing unstructured verbatim data is to map that data onto appropriate concern codes (CCCs), which are typically used in automotive firms for tracking quality and satisfaction metrics. These concern codes map to a hierarchy of function areas in the organization aimed at improving product, service and hence the customer’s overall experience. In this paper, we discuss our approach to address the challenge of mapping customer verbatim to concern codes, which is a classical natural language text classification problem.In this work, verbatim inputs from transactional systems of quality office, warranty claims, issues matrix, surveys, and social media content are used. Diverse sources and format…
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