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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Mechanical, Tribological Properties and Surface Characteristics of Developed Polymeric Materials Reinforced by CNTs

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Cairo Univ-Badr S. N. Azzam
National Institute for Standards (NIS)-Salah H. R. Ali
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0690
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this research is to assess and develop a polymeric material consisting of a mixture of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ultra- high- molecular- weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) reinforced by carbon-nanotube (CNT) by optimizing the mixing concentration of the three constituents. This optimized mixture is accomplished by using a melt extruder-mixing process. An experimental evaluation for accurate assessment of the developed nanocomposite material characteristics is achieved by using a universal tensile test machine and a plint-tribometer pin-on-disc machine. Moreover, the hardness of the material surface and its surface topography are assessed by a hardness tester machine and SEM technique, respectively. Developed samples for testing are classified into two groups of nanocomposites. The first group is created through mixing two pure polymeric UHMWPE and HDPE with different mass ratios of each. While, the other group is created through mixing three components UHMWPE, HDPE and CNTs with constant 50 wt.% of UHMWPE. Thereafter, CNTs with rations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 wt.% to 49.5, 49.0, 48.0, 47.0 and 46.0 wt.% of HDPE to create different…
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Scuffing Test Rig for Piston Wrist Pin and Pin Bore

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

General Motors-Ben Zhou, Yucong Wang
Oakland University-Rong Zhang, Qian Zou, Gary Barber
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0680
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
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Experimental Characterization of the Thermodynamic Properties of Diesel Fuels Over a Wide Range of Pressures and Temperatures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-JM Desantes, FJ Salvador, M Carreres, D Jaramillo
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0951
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The influence of pressure and temperature on some of the important thermodynamic properties of diesel fuels has been assessed for a set of fuels. The study focuses on the experimental determination of the speed of sound, density and compressibility (via the bulk modulus) of these fuels by means of a method that is thoroughly described in this paper. The setup makes use of a common-rail injection system in order to transmit a pressure wave through a high-pressure line and measure the time it takes for the wave to travel a given distance. Measurements have been performed in a wide range of pressures (from atmospheric pressure up to 200 MPa) and temperatures (from 303 to 353 K), in order to generate a fuel properties database for modelers on the field of injection systems for diesel engines to incorporate to their simulations.
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Boosting the Friction Performance of Amine Friction Modifiers with MoDTC

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry AB-Sarah M. Lundgren, Katja Eriksson
AkzoNobel Chemicals BV-Brenda Rossenaar
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0684
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For years amine surfactants, such as primary amines, ethoxylated amines and polyamines, have been used as friction modifiers in lubricating oils in order to improve fuel economy. This paper describes how the friction performance of amine containing lubricating oils can be improved with the addition of a small amount of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC).Three fatty amines, tallow amine (Armeen® T), tallow propanediamine (Duomeen® T) and tallow dipropylenetriamine (Triameen® T), have been tested with Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and with and without MoDTC in the Minitraction machine (MTM). It is shown that MoDTC improves the friction of Duomeen T and Triameen T while not for Armeen T. It is argued that the packing of Armeen T does not allow MoDTC to reach the surface and to create molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) sheets. Duomeen T and Triameen T have more nitrogen atoms and cannot pack as closely at the surface as Armeen T which allow MoS2 sheets to form. To validate the theory, Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Energy Dispersive Xray Analysis (SEM-EDX) has been used to determine the amount…
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Wear Properties of Car Engine Shaft in Actual Engine Environment

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0686
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test.We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution. We then reproduced a loading waveform in the bearing tester to allow testing under conditions equivalent…
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Proposed Metrological Method for Identifying Automotive Brake Discs

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Helwan Univ.-Hassan H. Dadoura
National Institute for Standards (NIS)-Salah H. R. Ali, Sarwat Z. A. Zahwi
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0691
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The main aim of this work is to develop an identification method to demonstrate the crucial surfaces of automotive braking system. Two brand new brake discs manufactured by two different manufacturers are tested. A typical disc to the one of them was put under working condition in actual braking system. Dimensional and geometrical deviations are investigated using advanced engineering metrological technique. Mechanical properties, tribological characteristics and chemical analyses are investigated. A coordinate measuring machine, universal hardness tester, mass comparator and XRF spectrometer are used in these diagnoses. Measurements of dimensional and geometrical deviations such as disc thickness variations, thickness deviations, straightness, parallelism, runout of disc surfaces are conducted. A comparison between form deviations in disc surfaces have been carried out and analyzed. The effect of material properties of the influencing surfaces on the wear rate and hardening of surfaces has been discussed. Wear rate under severe sliding conditions is thus strongly influenced by the geometrical and hardness characteristics. The wear rate of used brake disc rotor induced fatigue phenomena is accurately identified. Correlations between design…
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Experimental and Kinetic Study on Ignition Delay Times of Diethyl Ether

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Xi'an Jiaotong Univ-Zihang Zhang, Erjiang Hu, Cheng Peng, Zuohua Huang
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0897
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Ignition delay times of Diethyl Ether (DEE) were measured behind reflected shock waves for the temperatures from 1050 to 1600 K, pressures of 1.2, 4 and 16 atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1.0. Result shows that the ignition delay times increase with the increase of the equivalence ratio and the decrease of the pressure. The only literature DEE mechanism (Yasunaga et al. model) was employed to simulate the experimental data and result shows that the model gives reasonable prediction on lean mixtures, while the prediction on stoichiometric mixtures is slightly higher. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to pick out the key reactions in the process of DEE ignition at high and low pressures, respectively. Reaction pathway analysis shows that the consumption of DEE is dominated by the H-abstraction reactions. Through linear analysis, a correlation for the DEE ignition data was obtained. Using this correlation, the measured DEE data were compared to the literature correlations of DME and n-butane, for they have the similar molecular structure. Result shows that DEE has the strongest overall reactivity…
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Quantification of Shot-to-Shot Variation in Single Hole Diesel Injectors

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory-Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Zak Tilocco, Nicolas Sovis, Christopher F. Powell
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0936
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recent advancements in x-ray radiography diagnostics for direct injection sprays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, in addition to ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, spanning 14 different conditions.We calculated two dimensional maps of the standard deviation in line of sight mass distribution between individual spray events. These illuminated the spatial and temporal extent of variability between spray events. Regions of large fluctuations were observed to move downstream during the initial spray period and reached a steady state location after this initial transient. This steady state location was observed to have strong dependencies on rail pressure and ambient pressure, and a weaker dependency on nozzle hole diameter. Regions of elevated shot-to-shot variation in mass may indicate regions of initial instability, spray formation, and mixing.
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Effect of Surface Roughness and Lubrication on Scuffing for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

FCA US LLC-Xichen Sun
Oakland University-Jiman Han, Qian Zou, Gary Barber
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0683
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the scuffing tests performed to understand the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior for austempered ductile iron (ADI) material. As the scuffing tendency is increased, metal-to-metal interaction between contacting surfaces is increased. Lubrication between sliding surfaces becomes the boundary or mixed lubrication condition. Oil film breakdown leads to scuffing failure with the critical load. Hence, the role of surface roughness and lubrication becomes prominent in scuffing study. There are some studies in which the influence of the surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing was evaluated. However, no comprehensive scuffing study has been found in the literature regarding the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior of ADI material. The current research took into account the inferences of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing for ADI. The effect of various surface roughness values and two types of lubricants were evaluated based on the experimental data using ball-on-disc rig to better understand scuffing behavior affected by surface roughness and lubricants.
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Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Auto-Ignition Characteristics in a Heavy Duty Compression Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Univ. of Wisconsin-Michael A. Groendyk, David Rothamer
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0952
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effect of fuel physical properties on the ignition and combustion characteristics of diesel fuels was investigated in a heavy-duty 2.52 L single-cylinder engine. Two binary component fuels, one comprised of farnesane (FAR) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), and another comprised of primary reference fuels (PRF) for the octane rating scale (i.e. n-heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane), were blended to match the cetane number (CN) of a 45 CN diesel fuel. The binary mixtures were used neat, and blended at 25, 50, and 75% by volume with the baseline diesel. Ignition delay (ID) for each blend was measured under identical operating conditions. A single injection was used, with injection timing varied from −12.5 to 2.5 CAD. Injection pressures of 50, 100, and 150 MPa were tested. Observed IDs were consistent with previous work done under similar conditions with diesel fuels. The shortest IDs were seen at injection timings of −7.5 CAD. The largest difference in ID between all fuels of 75 ± 18 μs was observed at the earliest injection timing with an injection pressure of 50 MPa. The…
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