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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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The Impact Upon Durability of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using 5 Percentage Biodiesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Automotive Research & Testing Center-Yong-Yuan Ku, Ko Wei Lin, Ya-Lun Chen, Ching-Fu Liao
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1686
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Due to the increasing price of crude oil, biofuel as an alternative of fossil fuels is sought to be a global-wide solution to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas. In order to compare the influence on engine which meet euro IV emission standard by using pure fossil diesel, 2% and 5% biodiesel. A long-term operation with blended 2% and 5% biodiesel by standard engine test had been evaluated in this study. The results could be referred to the consideration of marketing promotion strategy as well as government policy in Taiwan. Both B2-B5 diesel fuel (2 and 5 vol% biodiesel) and diesel fuel were employed to the same engines for testing purpose to compare the influence. The engines were equipped with an electronically controlled common-rail fuel injection system. After 500 hours full load durability operation, the key components of the engines were analyzed and characterized by a series of inspections to identify the degree of decay and wear behavior. In addition, the engine performance which by the test procedure for SAE J1995 and emission measured which…
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Characteristics of High Pressure Jets for Direct Injection Gas Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aalto University-Jingzhou Yu, Ville Vuorinen, Ossi Kaario, Teemu Sarjovaara, Martti Larmi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1619
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The direct injection (DI) natural gas engine is considered as one of the promising technologies to achieve the continuing goals of the higher efficiency and reduced emissions for internal combustion engines. Shock wave phenomena can easily occur near the nozzle exit when high pressure gaseous fuel is injected directly into the engine cylinder. In the present study, high pressure gas issuing from a prototype gas injector was experimentally studied using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Acetone was selected as a fuel tracer. The effects of injection pressures on the flow structure and turbulent mixing were investigated based on a series of high resolution images. The jet macroscopic structures, such as jet penetration, cone angle and jet volume, are analyzed under different injection pressures. Results show that barrel shock waves can significantly influence the jet flow structure and turbulent mixing. With the increase of injection pressure, the jet cone angle and jet volume are obviously increased due to the strong expansion of barrel shock waves. This would be helpful to enhance the fuel-air mixing rate.
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A Representative Testing Methodology for System Influence on Automotive Fuel Filtration

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Robert Bosch GmbH-Peter Schuetzbach, Marko Kustic
UNC Charlotte Motorsports Engineering-Sumit Khadilkar, Ahmed Soliman
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0891
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Filtration of diesel and gasoline fuel in automotive applications is affected by many external and internal parameters, e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure, flow pulsation, and engine start-stop. Current test procedures for automotive fuel filters, proposed by most of the researchers and organizations including Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), do not apply the previously mentioned real-world-conditions. These operating conditions, which are typical for an automotive fueling system, have a significant effect on fuel filtration and need to be considered for the accurate assessment of the filter. This requires the development of improved testing procedures that will simulate the operating conditions in a fuel system as encountered in the real world. Although researchers have studied this topic in the past, they did not address the analysis of individual and combined effects of all the relevant fuel system parameters, which influence the filter performance. In this paper the effects of these parameters on the performance of diesel fuel filter for passenger cars will be studied using state-of-the-art testing facilities with the capability of…
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Analysis of Oil Film Generation on the Main Journal Bearing Using a Thin-Film Sensor and Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) Model

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Masatsugu Inui, Makoto Kobayashi, Kensaku Oowaki, Takayoshi Furukawa
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara, Michiyasu Owashi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1217
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Reducing friction in the crankshaft main bearings is an effective means of improving the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engines. To realize these improvements, it is necessary to understand the lubricating conditions, in particular the oil film pressure distributions between crankshaft and bearings. In this study, we developed a thin-film pressure sensor and applied it to the measurement of engine main bearing oil film pressure in a 4-cylinder, 2.5 L gasoline engine. This thin-film sensor is applied directly to the bearing surface by sputtering, allowing for measurement of oil film pressure without changing the shape and rigidity of the bearing. Moreover, the sensor material and shape were optimized to minimize influence from strain and temperature on the oil film pressure measurement. Measurements were performed at the No. 2 and 5 main bearings. Results confirmed that main bearing oil film pressure is primarily influenced by the combustion pressure of adjacent cylinders, but the range of influence varies between bearings. For comparison with measured results, we calculated bearing load and oil film pressure distribution for each…
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Tribological Performance of ZnO-Oil Nanofluids at Elevated Temperatures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oakland University-Ionut C. Harta, Kayla Owens, David Schall, Steven Thrush, Gary Barber, Qian Zou
Universidad Del Turabo-Steven De Jesús Santiago
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1219
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The tribological performance of nanofluids consisting of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed with a stabilizer in an API Group III oil was investigated. Recent research suggests that these fluids may reduce friction and wear compared to the base oil when used as a lubricant in metal-on-metal tests. The effects of nanoparticle concentration and test temperature on friction and wear were studied. Tests were run at 50°C and 100°C to investigate the viability of the fluids at elevated temperatures because possible applications include use as engine lubricants. Nanofluids showed friction reduction of up to 5.2% and reduced wear by up to 82.8% versus oil with only stabilizer at the highest ZnO concentration and the lowest temperature. Stabilizer increased wear at every concentration, but did not affect friction significantly. Fluid viscosity was also investigated. At 30°C, significant shear-thinning behavior was observed for the 2% ZnO solution, and a viscosity versus shear rate curve was found. At higher temperatures and high shear rates, the fluids took on Newtonian characteristics. The transition from non-Newtonian to Newtonian behavior may have important implications…
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Open Access

Formation and Removal of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Cars

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Rod Williams, Alastair Smith, Ian Buttery
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1684
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Deposits forming in the injector nozzle holes of modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, causing reduced or less efficient combustion, resulting in power loss and increased fuel consumption.A study of the factors affecting injector nozzle tip temperature, a parameter critical to nozzle deposit formation, has been conducted in a Peugeot DW10 passenger car bench engine, as used in the industry standard CEC F-098 injector nozzle deposit test, [1].The findings of the bench engine study were applied in the development of a Chassis Dynamometer (CD) based vehicle test method using Euro 5 compliant vehicles. The developed test method was refined to tune the conditions as far as practicable towards a realistic driving pattern whilst maintaining sufficient deposit forming tendency to enable test duration to be limited to a reasonable period.The test method developed was applied to a fleet of Euro 4 and 5 compliant vehicles enabling the relative deposit sensitivity of the fleet to be assessed. Subsequently the deposit removal performance of conventional and novel diesel detergents was…
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The Effect of Charge Cooling on the RON of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Princeton University-Frederick L. Dryer
The University of Melbourne-Tien Mun Foong, Kai J. Morganti, Michael J. Brear, Gabriel da Silva, Yi Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0886
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper examines the effect of charge cooling on the Research Octane Number (RON) of ethanol/gasoline blends. While gasoline is fully vaporized prior to entry into the engine in a standard RON test, significant charge cooling is observed for blends with high ethanol content, with the presence of a near-saturated and potentially two-phase air-fuel mixture during induction. Thus, the relative significance of the charge cooling and the autoignition chemistry cannot be determined from the standard RON test.In order to better delineate the effects of charge cooling and autoignition chemistry, a so-called ‘modified RON’ test is therefore devised in which the temperature of the air-fuel mixture entering the engine is fixed and representative of that observed for primary reference fuels (PRFs). Thermodynamic modeling of this modified RON test suggests the mixture is always fully vaporized prior to compression, and that the modified RON test maintains much more constant temperatures during compression, regardless of the enthalpy of vaporization. The modified RON test thus appears to be a more practical means of examining the significance of autoignition chemistry…
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Characterization of CH4 and CH4/H2 Mixtures Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0852
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels which can allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. Among gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels leading to lower CO₂ emissions; if compared to gasoline, CH₄ has wider flammable limits and better anti-knock properties, but lower flame speed. The addition of H₂ to CH₄ can improve the already good qualities of methane and compensate its weak points. In this paper a comparison was carried out between CH₄ and different CH₄/H₂ mixtures. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection spark ignition (PFI SI), four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycle engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. Optical measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow…
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Cylinder Head Intake Flow Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Lawrence Technological Univ-Badih Jawad
Lawrence Technological Univ.-Selin Arslan
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1409
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
In order to achieve optimum performance from an engine a homogeneous air fuel mixture must enter the combustion chamber. There are a number of factors that affect the mixture; this study focuses on the flow through a cylinder head port. This paper investigates the shape of a cylinder head port effects on the flow of the port and the horsepower and the torque of the engine. Two port shapes were examined, the stock port shape which is round and a modified port shape which is approximately an upside down triangle. By using computational and experimental analysis a direct relationship is demonstrated between the shape of the port and the performance characteristics of the engine.
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In-Cylinder Particulate Matter and Spray Imaging of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Co.-Steven Wooldridge
University of Michigan-Mohammad Fatouraie, Margaret Wooldridge
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0259
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A single-cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access was used to investigate the effects of ethanol/gasoline blends on in-cylinder formation of particulate matter (PM) and fuel spray characteristics. Indolene was used as a baseline fuel and two blends of 50% and 85% ethanol (by volume, balance indolene) were investigated. Time resolved thermal radiation (incandescence/natural luminosity) of soot particles and fuel spray characteristics were recorded using a high speed camera. The images were analyzed to quantify soot formation in units of relative image intensity as a function of important engine operating conditions, including ethanol concentration in the fuel, fuel injection timing (250, 300 and 320° bTDC), and coolant temperature (25°C and 90°C). Spatially-integrated incandescence was used as a metric to quantify the level of in-cylinder PM formed at the different operating conditions. The experiments were conducted at stoichiometric conditions, fixed engine speed of 1500 RPM, a load condition of approximately 5.5 bar IMEPⁿ, with a fixed intake manifold absolute pressure of 76 kPa. Significant reduction in in-cylinder soot formation was observed with the…
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