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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Direct Injection of Diesel-Butane Blends in a Heavy Duty Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Eindhoven University of Technology-C.A.J. Leermakers, B. Van den Berge, C.C.M. Luijten, L.P.H. de Goey
Vialle Alternative Fuel Systems-S. Jaasma
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2400
Published 2011-12-06 by SAE International in United States
Increasing fuel prices keep bringing attention to alternative, cheaper fuels. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been well known for decades as an alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) passenger cars. More recently, aftermarket LPG systems were also introduced to Heavy Duty transport vehicles. These (port fuel) systems either vaporize the liquid fuel and then mix it with intake air, or inject fuel into the engine's intake ports.While this concept offers significant fuel cost reductions, for aftermarket certification and large-scale OEM use some concerns are present. Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are known to be high because of premixed charge getting trapped into crevices and possibly being blown through during valve-overlap. Apart from the higher emission levels, this also limits fuel efficiency and therefore cost savings.Direct injection of LPG offers a solution to the aforementioned concerns by directing the fuel to the desired areas of the combustion chamber. To investigate the potential of this concept, diesel has been blended with liquid butane, in different ratios. These blends were directly injected into a heavy…
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Emissions and Combustion Behavior of a Bi-Fuel Gasoline and Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Maria Vittoria Prati, Reza Torbati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola
Seconda Università di Napoli-Antonio Mariani, Andrea Unich, Biagio Morrone
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0212
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
In the last ten years, the number of natural gas vehicles worldwide has grown rapidly with the biggest contribution coming from the Asia-Pacific and Latin America regions. As natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, the exhaust emissions from natural gas spark ignition vehicles are lower than those of gasoline powered vehicles. Moreover, natural gas is less affected by price fluctuations and its resources are more evenly widespread over the globe than to oil. However, as natural gas vehicles are usually bi-fuel gasoline and natural gas, the excellent knock resistant characteristics of natural gas cannot be completely exploited.This paper shows the results of an experimental activity performed on a passenger car fuelled alternatively by gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG). The vehicle has been tested on a chassis dynamometer over standard (NEDC) and real driving cycles (Artemis CADC), allowing to investigate a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder pressure has been measured by means of a spark plug with an integrated pressure transducer. By processing the acquired signal, a combustion analysis has been performed allowing…
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UV-Visible Spectroscopic Measurements of Dual-Fuel PCCI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0061
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
In this work, optical diagnostics were applied in a transparent DI diesel engine equipped with the head of Euro5 commercial engine and the last generation CR injection system. In order to realize the PCCI combustion the injection of neat bio-ethanol was performed in the intake manifold and European commercial diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder. Different amounts of bio-ethanol were injected in order to create PCCI combustion with high levels of pre-combustion mixing, and to ensure low equivalence ratio and low flame temperatures too. UV-Visible imaging and spectroscopic measurements were performed in the engine in order to investigate the autoignition of the charge and the combustion process, respectively. In particular, the detection of the species involved in the combustion, like OH, HCO, and CH, was performed. The relevance of the radicals and species on PCCI were evaluated and compared with the data from thermodynamic analysis.
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Real-World Performance of a CNG Heavy Duty Articulated Truck

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Vienna University of Technology-Luis Cachon, Ernst Pucher
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0192
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
In this study the performance of a monofuel compressed natural gas articulated truck was investigated under real-world conditions. To analyze the CNG vehicle due to fuel consumption and exhaust emissions a representative road-test route was conducted, including sections with significantly different driving conditions. Moreover, driving tests on freeway under higher load were carried out.As experimental equipment, a new ultra compact on-board system measured the in-car exhaust mass emissions in real time. Every second, a full dataset of CO₂, CO, HC and NOx emission rates was provided. The real-world emission measurements are based on a modal analysis of the emission concentrations in the tailpipe of the vehicle. The exhaust gas mass flow is calculated from the air mass flow and the gas components with a real-time reaction model. In combination with the vehicle speed, the emission rates in g/s are then calculated in gram per kilometer. Furthermore, the fuel consumption in g/s or kg/100 km is calculated with the carbon balance method according to the EU Commission directive 1999/100/EC.The gained distance related emissions and the derived…
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Investigation of LEV-III Aftertreatment Designs

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chrysler Group LLC-Michael Zammit, Jeffrey Wuttke
Umicore Autocat USA Inc.-Douglas Ball, Carlos Buitrago
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0301
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Proposed LEV-III emission level will require improvements in NMOG, CO and NOx emissions as measured over FTP and US06 emission cycles. Incremental improvements in washcoat technologies, cold start calibration and catalyst system design are required to develop a cost effective solution set. New catalyst technologies demonstrated both lower HC and NOx emissions with 25% less platinum group metals (PGM). FTP and US06 emissions were measured on a 4-cylinder 2.4L application which compares a close-coupled converter and close-coupled + underfloor converter systems. A PGM placement study was performed with the close-coupled converter system employing these new catalyst technologies. Emissions results suggest that the placement of PGM is critical in minimizing emissions and PGM costs.
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Improving the Efficiency of LPG Compression Ignition Engines for Passenger Cars through Waste Heat Recovery

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Missouri University of Science and Techn-Alberto Boretti
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2411
Published 2011-12-15 by SAE International in United States
The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient now in production for transport applications with full load brake efficiencies up to 40 to 45% and reduced penalties in brake efficiencies reducing the load by the quantity of fuel injected. The secrets of this engine's performances are the high compression ratio and the lean bulk combustion mostly diffusion controlled in addition to the partial recovery of the exhaust energy to boost the charging efficiency. The major downfalls of this engine are the carbon dioxide emissions and the depletion of fossil fuels using fossil diesel, the energy security issues of using foreign fossil fuels in general, and finally the difficulty to meet future emission standards for soot, smoke, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxide and unburned hydrocarbons for the combustion of the fuel injected in liquid state and the lack of maturity the lean after treatment system. LPG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It flashes immediately to gaseous form even if injected in…
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Effect of Start of Injection on the Particulate Emission from Methanol Fuelled HCCI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

I I T Kanpur-Avinash Kumar Agarwal
I I T Kanpur-Rakesh Kumar Maurya
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2408
Published 2011-12-06 by SAE International in United States
New combustion concepts developed in internal combustion engines such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) have attracted serious attention due to the possibilities to simultaneously achieve higher efficiency and lower emissions, which will impact the environment positively. The HCCI combustion concept has potential of ultra-low NOX and particulate matter (PM) emission in comparison to a conventional gasoline or a diesel engine. Environmental Legislation Agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions from engines because the health and environmental effects of particulates emitted are now known and can be measured by sophisticated instruments. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible, and the measurement of mass emission of PM from HCCI combustion systems shows their negligible contribution to PM mass. However some recent studies suggest that PM emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected.In this paper, effect of start of injection (SOI) of fuel on particulate emission of a HCCI engine fuelled with methanol is experimentally investigated. In this study, port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous mixture of methanol and air.…
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Modeling and Simulation for Design and Testing of Direct Injection Gaseous Fuel Systems for Medium-Speed Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aalesund University College (AaUC)-Vilmar Aesoy
NTNU - Trondheim-Eilif Pedersen
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2401
Published 2011-12-06 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study is to develop a modeling and simulation environment for the early design and testing for high pressure injection of alternative fuels in a medium-speed engine application. The proper injection of fuel into the cylinder at the correct timing and with the desired rate is a key to high combustion efficiency. The fuel spray and gas jet characteristics are governed by the injection pressure and nozzle geometry. Incorrect injection causes a reduced efficiency and increasing concentration of harmful emissions. In addition to efficient and clean combustion, safety issues are also important design features for fuel injection systems. In particular, the handling of volatile alternative fuels such as natural gas requires special safety functions to prevent hazardous incidents. Efficient and safe fuel injection is obtained through an increased understanding of the dynamic behavior of the complex fuel injection systems, which involves mechatronics, hydraulics and gas dynamics. The objective of this research is to perform an early design evaluation and testing of these complex fuel injection systems to better optimize design parameters, thereby…
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Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Xin He, Aaron Williams, Earl Christensen, Jonathan Burton, Robert McCormick
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2396
Published 2011-12-06 by SAE International in United States
Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a…
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Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil in Presence of Crushed Seashell as a Support for Solid Heterogeneous Catalyst

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of New South Wales-Essam Oun Al-Zaini, John Olsen, Tuan Huy Nguyen , Adesoji Adesina
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2226
Published 2011-09-13 by SAE International in United States
Developing relatively cheap and widely available resources for heterogeneous solid catalyst synthesis is a promising approach for biodiesel fuel industry. Seashell which is essentially calcium carbonate can be used as a basic support for transesterification heterogeneous catalysts. In the present investigation, the alcoholysis of waste frying oil has been carried out using seashell-supported K₃PO₄ as solid catalyst. The rationale for this derives from the fact that waste frying oil contains both long-chain free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) which are catalyzed on acid and basic sites respectively. Thus, the K₃PO₄/seashell catalyst may serve the dual role of promoting both esterification and transesterification reactions. The catalyst was synthesized following a dipping impregnation of pre-crushed and calcined seashell in an aqueous solution of K₃PO₄. Samples with different percentage loadings of K₃PO₄ (5 to 25 wt%) were prepared. The catalyst samples were characterized (textural and acid-base properties) and biodiesel production activity was evaluated in a slurry reactor. The liquid phase composition in the reactor was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The effects of different process…
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