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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Oxidation Stability, Engine Performance and Emissions Investigations of Karanja, Neem and Jatropha Biodiesel and Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur-Deepak Khurana , Avinash Kumar Agarwal
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0617
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Poor oxidation stability is the central problem associated with the commercial acceptance of the biodiesel. The EU standard (EN14214) specifies a minimum value of 6 h for biodiesel induction period at 110°C, measured with Rancimat instrument. Most of the freshly prepared biodiesel generally have lower induction periods than prescribed by the standards. Anti-oxidants are therefore added to enhance the oxidation/ storage stability of biodiesel. Oxidation is an exothermic process, and the reaction heat evolved makes it possible to use thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA).In the present study, the oxidation stability of methyl esters derived from Karanja oil and Neem oil, stabilized with anti-oxidant pyrogalol (PY) was studied by DSC. Onset temperature of freshly prepared Karanja biodiesel (KOME) and Neem biodiesel (NOME) was observed to be 148 and 153°C respectively. The stability increases with increasing anti-oxidant dosage. A comparative analysis of oxidation stability of biodiesel/diesel blends was done on biodiesel derived from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) oil using Rancimat instrument. Jatropha biodiesel (JOME)/ diesel blends were observed to be most stable…
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The Effect of Cetane Improvers and Biodiesel on Diesel Particulate Matter Size

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

West Virginia Univ.-John Nuszkowski, Kevin Flaim, Gregory Thompson
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0330
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDE), because of their widespread use and reputation of expelling excessive soot, have frequently been held responsible for excessive amounts of overall environmental particulate matter (PM). PM is a considerable contributor to air pollution, and a subject of primary concern to health and regulatory agencies worldwide. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided PM emissions regulations and standards of measurement techniques since the 1980's. PM standards set forth by the EPA for HDDEs are based only on total mass, instead of size and/or concentration. The European Union adopted a particle number emission limit, and it may influence the U.S. EPA to adopt particle number or size limits in the future.The purpose of this research was to study the effects biodiesel blended fuel and cetane improvers have on particle size and number. In addition, a special interest was taken into the variations in diesel particulate matter (DPM) measurements due to the fuel alteration. The Cambustion DMS-500, a fast particle spectrometer, was used to continuously sample diesel aerosol from a HDDE test-cell dilution…
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Analysis of Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and JME

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo, Carlo Ferraro, Davide Vezza, Theodoros Vlachos
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0328
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The effects of using a B30 blend of ultra-low sulfur diesel and two different Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) obtained from both Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine on both full load performance and part load emissions have been evaluated in this paper.In particular the effects on engine torque were firstly analyzed, for both a standard ECU calibration (i.e., without any special tuning for the different fuel characteristics) and for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration obtained by properly increasing the injected fuel quantities to compensate for the lower LHV of the B30: with the latter, the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be observed with the B30 blend too, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits.Moreover, the effects of the two different 30% vol. blends on brake specific fuel consumption and on engine-out exhaust emissions (CO₂, CO, HC, NOx and smoke) were also evaluated at 6 different…
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Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Zhenhong Lin, David Greene
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0618
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation…
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High Cetane Fuel Combustion Performance in a Conventional Military Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Naval Academy-Jim Cowart, Matthew Carr, Pat Caton, Lars Stoulig, Dianne Luning-Prak, Andrew Moore, Leonard Hamilton
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0334
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Synthetic diesel fuels from Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreating processes have high cetane numbers with respect to conventional diesel fuel. This study investigates diesel combustion characteristics with these high cetane fuels. A military jet fuel (JP-5 specification), a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel, and normal hexadecane (C16), a pure component fuel with defined cetane number of 100, are compared with operation of conventional military diesel fuel (F-76 specification). The fuels are tested in a AM General GEP HMMWV engine, an indirect-injection, largely mechanically-controlled diesel engine. Hundreds of thousands of these are in current use and are projected to be in service for many years to come. Experimental testing showed that satisfactory operation could be achieved across the speed-load operating map even for the highest cetane fuel (normal hexadecane). The JP-5, FT, and C16 fuels all showed later injection timing. Despite having a significantly higher cetane number, the FT fuel showed a longer ignition delay, probably due to the lower density of this synthetic fuel, which leads to slower penetration into the chamber. Thus, ignition delay was not found…
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Combustion Improvement of Diesel Engine by Alcohol Addition - Investigation of Port Injection Method and Blended Fuel Method

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Toyota Motor Corporation-Ryo Michikawauchi, Shiro Tanno, Yasushi Ito, Mutsumi Kanda
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0336
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Alcohol fuels that can be produced from cellulose continue to become more widely used in gasoline engines. This research investigated the application of alcohol to diesel engines with the aims of improving the combustion of diesel engines and of utilizing alternative fuels. Two methods were compared, a method in which alcohol is injected into the air intake system and a method in which alcohol is blended in advance into the diesel fuel. Alcohol is an oxygenated fuel and so the amount of soot that is emitted is small. Furthermore, blended fuels have characteristics that help promote mixture formation, which can be expected to reduce the amount of soot even more, such as a low cetane number, low viscosity, low surface tension, and a low boiling point. Ethanol has a strong moisture-absorption attribute and separates easily when mixed with diesel fuel. Therefore, 1-butanol was used since it possesses a strong hydrophobic attribute and does not separate easily. In this research, the low soot characteristics of alcohol were utilized and a method of improving combustion was tested…
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Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BASF Corp.-Kenneth Voss, Kevin Hallstrom
Caterpillar Inc.-Matthew Leustek, Jared Parsons, Hind Abi-Akar
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1136
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil-derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a…
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A Comparative Study of Two Kinds of Biodiesels and Biodiesel-DEE Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.-Ni Zhang, Zuohua Huang, Xiangang Wang, Bin Zheng
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0640
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Ultrafine particles and NOx emissions of two kinds of biodiesels and their blends with diethyl ether (DEE) as an additive were compared under two engine speeds and three loads on a turbocharged, high-pressure, common rail diesel engine. A single spray injection and equivalence ratio distribution are used to explain the results. The study shows that biodiesel and biodiesel-DEE blend consume more fuels than diesel but slight variation in thermal efficiency. NOx emissions of waste cooking oil biodiesel are less than those of soybean biodiesel. At low and medium loads, DEE blending reduces the NOx emission. At all engine loads and speeds, the shape of ultrafine particle number distribution curve is unimodal, and fuel type slightly affects the shape of distribution curves. The number/mass distribution curves shift to fewer particles when operating on biodiesel and the curves further move to downward when DEE is added. Nanoparticles do not increase when operating on biodiesel or biodiesel-DEE blend. Total number concentration of ultrafine particle is decreased in biodiesel and it's further decreased in the presence of DEE. The…
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Oleic Methyl Ester Investigations in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine; Stage One: Combustion Investigations

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Georgia Southern University-Valentin Soloiu, Jeff Lewis, April Covington, David Nelson , Norman Schmidt
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0616
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The authors investigated the injection and combustion characteristics of a methyl oleate (Methyl 9(Z)-octadecenoate C19H36O2; Mw 296.495), in blends with diesel No. 2 of 20-50% (wt./wt.) in order to evaluate the possibility of using it as an additive to full-bodied biodiesel for performance improvement. The FAME test fuel has been injected in an experimental single-cylinder separate combustion chamber engine with 77 mm bore, with a compression ratio of 23.5:1 at a pressure of 147 bars that proved capable of atomizing the higher viscosity fuel. The diesel fuel was blended with Methyl Oleate up to 50%, (O50) and the mixtures have shown favorable ignition characteristics, with the ignition delay of about 1.03 ms for petroleum diesel (D100) and slightly decreased for O50 at 2000 rpm with about 1% or 0.01 ms. The heat release rate for O50 displayed a similar development compared with the reference diesel fuel, the premixed combustion phase being combined with the diffusion combustion and reaching a maximum of 17.5 J/deg for diesel versus 15.5 J/deg for O50. Maximum combustion pressure was approximately…
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Research on Emissions and Engine Lube Oil Deterioration of Diesel Engines with BioFuels (RME)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Institute of Petroleum Processing-Zbigniew Stepien, Wieslawa Urzedowska, Stanislaw Oleksiak
Univ. of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1302
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
In the diesel sector the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and in US mostly SME (soja oil methyl ester) - are used as a various share, % volume blends with the diesel fuel (B5, B7, B10, B20, Bxx). The present joint project focuses on RME being the most important representative of the biofuels of 1st generation in Europe. The influences of RME blend fuels on emissions and on lube oil deterioration are emphasized.Emissions were investigated on a modern engine with exhaust gas aftertreatment devices like SCR and (DPF+ SCR). Beside the legally limited exhaust emission components some non-legislated like NO₂, N₂O, NH₃ and nanoparticles were measured at stationary and dynamic engine operation.The most important findings are: - the increased percentage of RME w/o aftertreatment causes an increase of NOx by higher engine load and reduction of CO & HC; at transient operation (ETC) these tendencies are less pronounced and only B100 shows an increase of NOx, - with SCR alone there are no differences of NOx and…
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