Terms:
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
AND
2
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Applications of Tuning Fork Resonators for Engine Oil, Fuel, Biodiesel Fuel and Urea Quality Monitoring

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Measurements Specialties, Inc.-Jean Milpied, Mark Uhrich, Bruno Patissier, Lisa Bernasconi
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2639
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Based on a Tuning Fork flexural resonator, an innovative, miniaturized and rugged sensor that directly and simultaneously measures a fluid’s dynamic viscosity, density and dielectric constant has been developed. The sensor provides a simultaneous fluid temperature measurement by incorporating a temperature sensor into the sensor assembly. The physical property measurements for viscosity, density and dielectric constant are accomplished by high performance algorithms that provide direct feedback to Engine Control Module (ECM), Urea SCR, fuel and other fluid management systems. Based on these data, realtime modification of engine or system operation can be made to optimize power, efficiency, oil drain management and emissions depending on the fluid and control system that integrates the sensor.Single parameter sensors like electrical property sensors fail to provide sufficient information to accurately monitor fluid quality or degradation. On the contrary, the tuning fork sensor provides multi parametric analysis to enable effective fluid condition monitoring as its four measured parameters offer a 4 dimensional fluid profile based on their absolute and relative change. This technology is being applied to a variety of…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Canmet ENERGY, Natural Resources Canada-Craig Fairbridge, Darcy Hager, Heather Dettman
Chevron-William J. Cannella
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2769
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and1H/13C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) apparatus.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Deposit Formation in Urea-SCR Systems

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Navistar Inc.-Vadim O. Strots, Shyam Santhanam, Brad J. Adelman, Gregory A. Griffin, Edward M. Derybowski
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2780
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Formation of urea injection related deposits in a heavy-duty urea-SCR system was studied using an engine lab setup. The exhaust system was instrumented with thermocouples to track temperature changes caused by the liquid spray. Impact of operating parameters (exhaust and ambient temperature, urea solution injection rate) and system design modification (insulation, wiremesh insert) on the temperature profiles and deposit quantities was studied.Deposits were found in all tests conducted under typical exhaust temperatures. Deposition rate increased with lower exhaust and ambient temperature, and with higher injection rate. Mixer insulation and wiremesh upstream of the mixer reduced the deposits.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Impact of Biodiesel on Lubricant Corrosion Performance

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Infineum UK, Ltd-Stuart McTavish
Infineum USA, LP-Katherine M. Richard
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2660
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
The global use of biodiesel fuel blends derived from fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is increasing; driven by legislation derived from political, economic and environmental factors. The presence of FAME biodiesel changes the operating environment of the engine and after treatment devices, affecting the performance characteristics and requirements of the lubricant. As part of a wider research project into the impact of biologically-sourced fuels on crankcase lubricant performance, this paper documents the impact of biodiesel on corrosion-related performance. The effect of FAME biodiesel on lubricant corrosion control and the differences in performance due to FAME source are described. Mechanistic studies into the corrosive nature of FAME are reported. Novel lubricant technologies tailored to control the negative impact of FAME in the crankcase are demonstrated.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Effect of Viscosity and Friction Modifier on Fuel Economy and the Relationship Between Fuel Economy and Friction

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

SK Energy-Seik Park, Yengun Cho, Kwunsup Sung, Namgyu Han
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2662
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Higher energy-conserving engine oils are becoming important in the face of the saving of natural resources. When it comes to energy-conserving engine oil, we consider low viscosity oil with special additives like friction modifiers.In this research, the effect of viscosity was studied, especially HTHS (High Temperature High Shear) viscosity on friction reduction. Then the best oil for friction reduction was used to learn how such oils work on friction reduction with different FM (Friction Modifier). We have used two types of FM, organic and inorganic, because of different friction reduction mechanisms.Our study of FM treated low viscosity engine oil has been continued to evaluate how such oils work at different part in the engine. Through the friction test, engine friction and engine friction without head (cam) was measured. Then, the effect of each FM on friction reduction at different engine parts was also studied.Finally, from the vehicle test for fuel economy, we also found that the relation between friction at non-firing friction tester (NFFT) and fuel economy test using passenger car.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Acidic Condensation in Low Pressure EGR Systems using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-José M. Luján, Benjamín Pla
Valeo Engine Cooling-Stephanie Moroz, Guillaume Bourgoin
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2805
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Testing was performed on a 2.0 liter diesel engine with high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) EGR, using standard European low sulfur diesel as well as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel fuels produced from soy, rapeseed and palm feedstock, both neat and blended with 50% standard diesel. In the HP EGR configuration, fuel injection, air flow and EGR rate were adapted to achieve the same engine load and NOx emissions for all fuels at the selected test points. Higher brake specific fuel consumption and lower smoke emissions were observed for the biodiesels compared to the standard diesel. In the LP EGR configuration, large reductions in NOx and smoke were observed for all fuels compared to HP EGR. In addition, water condensed in the charge air cooler at coolant temperatures below 30°C. This condensate was collected and analyzed, finding similar volumes and acidity for condensates from all the diesel and biodiesel fuels.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Characteristics of Soot Deposits in EGR Coolers

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc-Ho Teng, Gerhard Regner
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2671
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Characteristics of soot deposits in the EGR cooler were studied, on basis of which a comprehensive model for soot particle depositions was developed. It was found that the soot deposit may be divided into three characteristic layers: a quasi-crystal base layer formed by nano-particles, an intermediate layer of denser packing of soot particles with meso pores, and a highly porous top layer formed by mechanical interlocking of soot particles. The cooler performance is affected significantly by the top layer of the deposit. Because of their weak contact energy, particles in the top layer and intermediate layers may be removed by the shear force under high EGR flows. The contact energy for the particles in the base layer is much stronger than that in the surface and intermediate layers. The base layer may be removed only with physicochemical methods. Due to the aforementioned characteristics of the soot deposit, behavior of the EGR cooler fouling at the transient engine operation differs from that at the steady-state engine operation. This characterization on the soot deposits in the EGR…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Post Mortem of an Aged Tier 2 Light-Duty Diesel Truck Aftertreatment System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Research & Advanced Engineering-Christine K. Lambert, Yisun Cheng, Douglas Dobson, Jon Hangas, Mark Jagner, Hungwen Jen, James Warner
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2711
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
A 2005 prototype diesel aftertreatment system consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), Cu/zeolite Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst, and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) was aged to an equivalent of 120k mi on an engine dynamometer using an aging cycle that incorporated both city and highway driving modes. The program demonstrated durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions to federal Tier 2 levels on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck application. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (∼15 ppm) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced the fuel penalty associated with the emission control system, and improved long-term system durability. A total of 643 filter regenerations occurred during the aging that raised the entire catalyst system to high temperatures on a regular basis. After testing the aged system on a 6000 lbs light-duty diesel truck, a post mortem analysis was completed on core samples taken from the DOC, SCR catalyst, and filter. It was found that the outlet of the DOC and the inlet of the SCR were deteriorated most significantly. Known catalyst poisons such…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Speciated Engine-Out Organic Gas Emissions from a PFI-SI Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Kenneth Kar, Wai K Cheng
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2673
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Engine-out HC emissions from a PFI spark ignition engine were measured using a gas chromatograph and a flame ionization detector (FID). Two port fuel injectors were used respectively for ethanol and gasoline so that the delivered fuel was comprised of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (by volume) of ethanol. Tests were run at 1.5, 3.8 and 7.5 bar NIMEP and two speeds (1500 and 2500 rpm). The main species identified with pure gasoline were partial reaction products (e.g. methane and ethyne) and aromatics, whereas with ethanol/gasoline mixtures, substantial amounts of ethanol and acetaldehyde were detected. Indeed, using pure ethanol, 74% of total HC moles were oxygenates. In addition, the molar ratio of ethanol to acetaldehyde was determined to be 5.5 to 1. The amount (as mole fraction of total HC moles) of exhaust aromatics decreased linearly with increasing ethanol in the fuel, while oxygenate species correspondingly increased. These results suggest that the change in ethanol and aromatics exhaust emissions were due to fuel replacement. It was also found that the oxygenate fraction of total…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Innospec Ltd-Jim Barker, Paul Richards
University of Nottingham-Colin Snape, Will Meredith
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2637
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with moves to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports, from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators, regarding fuel system deposit issues. Preliminary work performed to characterise these deposits showed them to be complicated mixtures, predominantly carbon like but also containing other possible carbon precursor materials. This paper describes the application of the combination of hydropyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to the analysis of these deposits. It also discusses the insights that such analysis can bring to the constitution and origin of these deposits.
Annotation ability available