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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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CORRIGENDUM: Rapid Methodology to Simultaneous Quantification of Differ Antioxidants in Biodiesel Using Infrared Spectrometry and Multivariate Calibration

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Brazil-Luciano Nascimento Batista, Viviane F. Mello, Mauricio G. Fonseca, Wericksonb F.C. Rocha
National Institute of Technology, Brazil-Claudete N. Kunigami
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-01-0004.1
Published 2019-05-15 by SAE International in United States
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Assessing Viscosity in Hydro-Erosive Grinding Process via Refractometry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

UTFPR, Brazil-Bárbara R. Heidemann, Gustavo Scherpinski, Luís Fabris, Marcia Muller, José L. Fabris, Giuseppe Pintaude
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0012
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
The manufacturing of diesel injector nozzles requires precision processing to produce multiple micro-holes. An abrasive fluid containing a mixture of mineral oil and hard particles is used for rounding them, ensuring the hydrodynamics of the injection. As verified in a previous investigation, the viscosity of the fluid undergoes uncontrolled changes during hydro-erosive (HE) grinding. Such undesired viscosity changes are detrimental to the process and difficult to assess. The current investigation aims to study the possibility of using the refractive index of the oils used in the HE grinding for assessing their viscosities. A calibration curve correlating the refractive index and viscosity was obtained from the analysis of samples produced by mixing two distinct mineral oils in different proportions. The determined calibration curve was tested with 45 samples of filtered oil, collected directly from the tanks during the HE grinding. The results showed that refractometry is a potential technique for online control of grinding efficiency.
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A Multiscale Cylinder Bore Honing Pattern Lubrication Model for Improved Engine Friction

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istanbul Technical University, Turkey-Osman Taha Sen, Ozgen Akalin
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0010
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
Three-dimensional patterns representing crosshatched plateau-honed cylinder bores based on two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of measured surfaces were generated and used to calculate pressure flow, shear-driven flow, and shear stress factors. Later, the flow and shear stress factors obtained by numerical simulations for various surface patterns were used to calculate lubricant film thickness and friction force between piston ring and cylinder bore contact in typical diesel engine conditions using a mixed lubrication model. The effects of various crosshatch honing angles, such as 30°, 45°, and 60°, and texture heights on engine friction losses, wear, and oil consumption were discussed in detail. It is observed from numerical results that lower lubricant film thickness values are generated with higher honing angles, particularly in mixed lubrication regime where lubricant film thickness is close to the roughness level, mainly due to lower resistance to pressure flow. Although, shear stress values are lower for higher honing angles, significant friction force observed in the expansion stroke with high honing angles is primarily due to metal-to-metal contact and increased viscous shear as…
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Investigation into the Tribological Properties of Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends Under the Run-In Period Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Islamic Azad University, Iran-Mahmoud Amiri Nazari Barsari, Alireza Shirneshan
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0009
Published 2019-06-25 by SAE International in United States
Lubricity is a very important issue for diesel fuel injectors and pumps (of an engine) that are lubricated by the fuel itself. Biodiesel as an alternative fuel has a number of technical advantages compared to conventional diesel. It is required to perform more research about the tribological behavior of biodiesel blends under run-in period conditions at different rotational speeds. Friction characteristics of biodiesel (mixture of sunflower and soybean methyl ester) were studied by using a four-ball wear testing machine. Results indicated that the friction was reduced with the increase in rotational speed under the run-in period conditions. Moreover, the results showed that the friction coefficient decreases at rotational speeds of 600 and 900 rpm as the proportion of biodiesel increases in the fuel blend. This is due to higher viscosity of biodiesel and the presence of free fatty acids and monoglyceride and diglyceride components in this fuel, which improve the lubricity properties of the fuel blends. However, the coefficient of friction of the fuel blends that contained more biodiesel (B50 and B100) increased at rotational…
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Identification and Quantification of Phosphate Ester-Based Hydraulic Fluid in Jet Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Israeli Air Force, Israel-Diana Stamker Gertopski, Konstantin Tartakovsky, Moshe Rabaev
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-01-0003
Published 2019-03-13 by SAE International in United States
Phosphate ester-based hydraulic fluids are commonly used in aviation, due to their fire-resistant properties. However, contamination of jet fuel with hydraulic fluid may cause serious engine failure, hot corrosion of metals, and swelling of elastomer and polymer seals. Identifying and quantifying hydraulic fluids in jet fuels using chromatography is challenging since common hydraulic fluids, such as ExxonMobil™ HyJet™ V and Skydrol™ LD-4, are composed of tri-butyl phosphate, the main peak of which overlaps with peaks from jet fuels in chromatograms. In this work, three techniques to separate and differentiate the jet fuel peaks from the tri-butyl phosphate peaks were developed. Two methods are based on a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure followed by identification and quantification, which is carried out using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer or a flame ionization detector. The third technique is single-staged, where the separation and analysis are carried out by a gas chromatograph equipped with a polar column and a mass spectrometer. Lowest level of detection reached was 0.1 ppm of tri-butyl phosphate in jet fuel, 10…
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Oxidation of Soybean Biodiesel Fuel in Diesel Engine Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
During diesel engine operation, some fuel is entrained in engine oil, particularly as a consequence of strategies to regenerate NOx traps or particle filters. This “fuel dilution” of oil can adversely affect engine oil properties and performance. Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel is more prone to fuel dilution and more susceptible to oxidation. Oxidation stability experiments were conducted at 160°C using a modified Rapid Small-Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) and a Rancimat instrument with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% biodiesel in four fully formulated engine oils, two partially formulated engine oils, and two base oils. These experiments showed decreasing oxidation stability with increasing biodiesel content. An exception was noted with the least stable oils (two base oils and one engine oil) in which 5 wt% biodiesel improved the oxidation stability relative to oil without biodiesel. Experiments with biodiesel distillation fractions identified this stability enhancement within the least volatile biodiesel fraction, consistent with natural antioxidants in the biodiesel. Omission of two engine oil additives, antioxidants and zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP), led to an unexpected increase in oxidation…
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Modeling and Simulation of Refueling Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Jiangsu University, China-Shu Liu, Ren He
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0014
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicular evaporative emissions are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, the engines of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may not start for a long time, causing the activated carbon canister to not purge well in-use and to become saturated with fuel vapor. Therefore, the problems of evaporative emissions and refueling emissions of PHEVs are still severe. The objectives of this article are to model and simulate the refueling emissions from PHEVs to shorten the design and development cycle. To achieve the goals, the release of refueling emissions is divided into two stages: the depressurization stage and the refueling stage. The mathematical model has been established by means of the ideal gas law and the gas mass transfer and diffusion law. Then, the numerical model is built and the volume of fluid (VOF) model was applied in the simulation. Moreover, the numerical model was validated by experiment on internal pressure increase of the fuel tank. The baseline case is conducted under the condition that the fuel dispensing rate is 50 L/min. Finally, different…
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Comparison of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Economy of SI Engines with Three Fuels: RON95, M15, and E10

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Israel Institute of Technology, Israel-Gideon Goldwine, Eran Sher
University of Toronto, Canada-Diana Sher
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0013
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This article focuses on a comparative research of the emissions discharged from four vehicles equipped with SI engines, which comply with different emission control systems (Euro 6, Euro 5, and Euro 3). The vehicles used for this work were installed with two different fuel injection technologies (direct injection and port fuel injection) and were operated with three different types of fuels (RON 95, M15, and E10). The tests were performed at the Joint Research Center (JRC) in Ispra using a state-of-the-art emissions test facility according to the European emissions legislation. The test bench included a chassis dynamometer and two different driving cycles were used: NEDC and US06. The main conclusions observed by this article are: (1) Emissions levels from vehicles fueled with M15 are similar to or lower than from those fueled with RON95. (2) Using M15 has the potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and to save fuel on an energetic basis. (3) PM emissions are lower for gasoline/alcoholic fuels. (4) No statistically significant effects on carbonyl emissions were found with M15.
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Elastomer Swell Behavior in 1-Propanol, Diisobutylene, Cyclopentanone, and a Furan Mixture Blended in E10 and a Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (BOB)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Michael D. Kass, Christopher J. Janke, Raynella M. Connatser, Brian West
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0011
Published 2019-08-21 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of four potential bio-derived blendstock molecules with infrastructure elastomers was determined by measuring the volume change following exposure. The blendstock molecules included 1-propanol, diisobutylene, cyclopentanone, and a furan mixture. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six nitrile rubbers (NBRs), and one each of fluorosilicone, neoprene, polyurethane, and silicone. The elastomers were exposed to the fuel molecules as blends ranging from 0 to 30 vol.% in both a blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) formulation and an E10 fuel. Silicone exhibited excessive swelling in each test fuel, while the other elastomers showed good compatibility (low swell) with diisobutylene, 1-propanol, and the furan mixture when BOB was used as the base fuel. The E10 base fuel produced high (>30%) swell in neoprene, polyurethane, and some nitrile rubbers. In most cases diisobutylene produced the least amount of volume expansion. In contrast, the addition of cyclopentanone produced unacceptably high swelling in each elastomer and is not considered suitable for use with these fuels. Analysis of the results showed that the swelling behavior is predominantly due to the polarity of…
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The Effect of NO2/NOx Ratio on the Performance of a SCR Downstream of a SCR Catalyst on a DPF

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, Gordon G. Parker, John H. Johnson
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0008
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
Different aftertreatment systems consisting of a combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and SCR catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF) (SCR-F) are being developed to meet future oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions standards being set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). One such system consisting of a SCRF® with a downstream SCR was used in this research to determine the system NOx reduction performance using experimental data from a 2013 Cummins 6.7L ISB (Interact System B) diesel engine and model data. The contribution of the three SCR reactions on NOx reduction performance in the SCR-F and the SCR was determined based on the modeling work. The performance of a SCR was simulated with a one-dimensional (1D) SCR model. A NO2/NOx ratio of 0.5 was found to be optimum for maximizing the NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip for the SCR for a given value of ammonia-to-NOx ratio (ANR). The SCRF® + SCR system was simulated using the 2D SCR-F + 1D SCR system model. For all the…
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