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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Autoignition of Isooctane beyond RON and MON Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Muhammad Waqas, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1254
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The present study experimentally examines the low-temperature autoignition area of isooctane within the in-cylinder pressure-in-cylinder temperature map.Experiments were run with the help of a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The boundaries of this engine were extended so that experiments could be performed outside the domain delimited by research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) traces. Since homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is governed by kinetics, the rotation speed for all the experiments was set at 600 rpm to allow time for low-temperature heat release (LTHR). All the other parameters (intake pressure, intake temperature, compression ratio, and equivalence ratio) were scanned, such as the occurrence of isooctane combustion.The principal results showed that LTHR for isooctane occurs effortlessly under high intake pressure (1.3 bar) and low intake temperature (25 °C). Increasing the intake temperature leads to the loss of the LTHR and therefore to a smaller domain on the pressure-temperature trace. In such a case, the LTHR domain is restricted from 20 to 50 bar in pressure and from 600 to 850 K in…
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Dividing Flow-Weighted Sampling Approach in Partial Flow Dilution System for Particulate Emission Measurement in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Horiba Instruments Incorporated-Montajir Rahman
Horiba Ltd.-Yoshinori Otsuki, Kazuhiko Haruta
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0645
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Light-duty vehicle emission measurement test protocols defined in the Code of Federal Regulation (40 CFR Part 1066) allow sampling particulate matter (PM) of all phases of Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) on a single PM sampling filter by means of flow-weighted sampling in order to increase PM mass loaded on the filter. A technical challenge is imposed especially for partial flow dilution systems (PFDS) to maintain a precise dilution ratio (DR) over such a wide sample flow range due to the subtraction flow determination method of dilution air and diluted exhaust flows, because the flow difference is critical at high DR conditions. In this study, an improved flow weighting concept is applied to a PFDS by installing a bypass line with a flow controller in parallel with the PM sampling filter in order to improve DR accuracy during flow-weighted sampling. The diluted exhaust flow of the PFDS is kept constant and the flow through the PM sampling filter is adjusted by dividing the total diluted exhaust flow between the PM sampling filter and the bypass line.…
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Investigation of Particle Number Emission Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Lund University-Pravesh Chandra Shukla, Sam Shamun, Louise Gren, Vilhelm Malmborg, Joakim Pagels, Martin Tuner
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0909
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are one of the most important power generating units these days. Increasing greenhouse gas emission level and the need for energy security has prompted increasing research into alternative fuels for diesel engines. Biodiesel is the most popular among the alternatives for diesel fuel as it is biodegradable and renewable and can be produced domestically from vegetable oils. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also gained popularity due to some of its advantages over biodiesel such as higher cetane number, lower deposit formation, storage stability, etc. HVO is a renewable, paraffinic biobased alternative fuel for diesel engines similar to biodiesel. Unlike biodiesel, the production process for HVO involves hydrogen as catalyst instead of methanol which removes oxygen content from vegetable oil. A modified six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine (modified for operation with single cylinder) was used for studying particle number emission characteristics for HVO fuel. The investigation was performed for varying fuel injection pressure at various engine operating loads (6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 bar IMEP). Five rail pressures were chosen from…
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Tier 2 Test Fuel Impact to Tier 3 Aftertreatment Systems and Calibration Countermeasures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Advanced Vehicle Technology-Eugene D. White
Ford Motor Company-Bruce Anderson, Paul Ranspach
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0941
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
During the course of emissions and fuel economy (FE) testing, vehicles that are calibrated to meet Tier 3 emissions requirements currently must demonstrate compliance on Tier 3 E10 fuel while maintaining emissions capability with Tier 2 E0 fuel used for FE label determination. Tier 3 emissions regulations prescribe lower sulfur E10 gasoline blends for the U.S. market. Tier 3 emissions test fuels specified by EPA are required to contain 9.54 volume % ethanol and 8-11 ppm sulfur content. EPA Tier 2 E0 test fuel has no ethanol and has nominal 30 ppm sulfur content. Under Tier 3 rules, Tier 2 E0 test fuel is still used to determine FE. Tier 3 calibrations can have difficulty meeting low Tier 3 emissions targets while testing with Tier 2 E0 fuel. Research has revealed that the primary cause of the high emissions is deactivation of the aftertreatment system due to sulfur accumulation on the catalysts. The emissions drive cycles used in the test sequence play a significant role in catalyst deactivation. It is possible to desulfur the catalyst…
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Durability Study of a High-Pressure Common-Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive-Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aramco Research Center-Tom Tzanetakis, Alexander K. Voice, Michael L. Traver
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0270
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Experimental data and modeling work have shown that gasoline-like fuels can potentially be used to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low pollutant emissions in compression ignition engines. Demonstrating that existing hardware systems are tolerant to these fuels is a key step in harnessing this potential. In this study, a 400-hour North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) test cycle was used to assess the overall robustness of a Cummins XPI common-rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. The cycle was designed to accelerate wear and identify any significant failure modes that could appear under normal operating conditions. Although prior work has investigated injection system durability with a wide variety of alternative fuels, this study uniquely focuses on a high-volatility, low-viscosity, gasoline-like fuel that has been dosed with lubricity additive. Fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures, and fuel flow rates were continuously logged on a dedicated test bench in order to monitor hardware performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were acquired every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, low-level metallic wear, and dilution of the oil. Test…
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A New Catalyzed HC Trap Technology that Enhances the Conversion of Gasoline Fuel Cold-Start Emissions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-Jason Lupescu, Lifeng Xu, Hung-Wen Jen, Amy Harwell
Umicore Autocat USA Inc.-John Nunan, Chad Alltizer, Gregory Denison
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0938
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Passive in-line catalyzed hydrocarbon (HC) traps have been used by some manufacturers in the automotive industry to reduce regulated tailpipe (TP) emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) during engine cold-start conditions. However, most NMOG molecules produced during gasoline combustion are only weakly adsorbed via physisorption onto the zeolites typically used in a HC trap. As a consequence, NMOG desorption occurs at low temperatures resulting in the use of very high platinum group metal (PGM) loadings in an effort to combust NMOG before it escapes from a HC trap. In the current study, a 2.0 L direct-injection (DI) Ford Focus running on gasoline fuel was evaluated with full useful life aftertreatment where the underbody converter was either a three-way catalyst (TWC) or a HC trap. A new HC trap technology developed by Ford and Umicore demonstrated reduced TP NMOG emissions of 50% over the TWC-only system without any increase in oxides of oxygen (NOx) emissions. Other HC trap technologies had at best a 25% NMOG emission reduction. Parallel laboratory reactor studies were conducted in an effort…
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Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory-Gina M. Magnotti, Katarzyna E. Matusik, Jan Ilavsky, Alan L. Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell
Georgia Institute of Technology-Caroline L. Genzale
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0277
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions. In general, this “engineering-level” simulation was able to reproduce the details of the droplet size distribution throughout the spray after calibration of the spray breakup model constants against the experimental data. Complementary to this approach, higher-fidelity…
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Passive Hydrocarbon Trap to Enable SULEV-30 Tailpipe Emissions from a Flex-Fuel Vehicle on E85 Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-Jason Lupescu, Lifeng Xu
Umicore Autocat USA Inc.-John Nunan, Chad Alltizer
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0944
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Future LEV-III tailpipe (TP) emission regulations pose an enormous challenge forcing the fleet average of light-duty vehicles produced in the 2025 model year to perform at the super ultralow emission vehicle (SULEV-30) certification levels (versus less than 20% produced today). To achieve SULEV-30, regulated TP emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) hydrocarbons (HCs) and oxygenates plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) must be below a combined 30 mg/mi (18.6 mg/km) standard as measured on the federal emissions certification cycle (FTP-75). However, when flex-fuel vehicles use E85 fuel instead of gasoline, NMOG emissions at cold start are nearly doubled, before the catalytic converter is active. Passive HC traps (HCTs) are a potential solution to reduce TP NMOG emissions. The conventional HCT design was modified by changing the zeolite chemistry so as to improve HC retention coupled with more efficient combustion during the desorption phase. Increased trapping efficiently was achieved by (a) modifying the acidic properties of the zeolite, (b) inclusion of Pd in order to more efficiently trap alkenes and NOx, and (c) the introduction of a…
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Characterization of Powertrain Technology Benefits Using Normalized Engine and Vehicle Fuel Consumption Data

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-Patrick Phlips, David Scholl
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0318
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle certification data are used to study the effectiveness of the major powertrain technologies used by car manufacturers to reduce fuel consumption. Methods for differentiating vehicles effectively were developed by leveraging theoretical models of engine and vehicle fuel consumption. One approach normalizes by displacement per unit distance, which puts both fuel used and vehicle work in mean effective pressure units, and is useful when comparing engine technologies. The other normalizes by engine rated power, a customer-relevant output metric. The normalized work/power is proportional to weight/power, the most fundamental performance metric. Certification data for 2016 and 2017 U.S. vehicles with different powertrain technologies are compared to baseline vehicles with port fuel injection (PFI) naturally aspirated engines and six-speed automatic transmissions. The most efficient baseline vehicles are low performance and achieve Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efficiencies of 30 % Highway, 20 % City, and 23 % Combined cycles. The data show that efficiency drops linearly as the weight/power ratio decreases. The data shows turbocharging, cylinder deactivation, Atkinson cycle, and eight-speed transmissions providing larger benefits in higher power/weight…
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Decoupling Vehicle Work from Powertrain Properties in Vehicle Fuel Consumption

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-Patrick Phlips, Mrudula Orpe, Genesis Vasquez
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0322
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The fuel consumption of a vehicle is shown to be linearly proportional to (1) total vehicle work required to drive the cycle due to mass and acceleration, tire friction, and aerodynamic drag and (2) the powertrain (PT) mechanical losses, which are approximately proportional to the engine displaced volume per unit distance travelled (displacement time gearing). The fuel usage increases linearly with work and displacement over a wide range of applications, and the rate of increase is inversely proportional to the marginal efficiency of the engine. The theoretical basis for these predictions is reviewed. Examples from current applications are discussed, where a single PT is used across several vehicles. A full vehicle cycle simulation model also predicts a linear relationship between fuel consumption, vehicle work, and displacement time gearing and agrees well with the application data. When the fuel consumption of a PT is measured or predicted at a few distinct vehicle work levels for different gearings and engine displacements, the data can be used to develop a simple regression model which accurately captures the effects…
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