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Enhanced Anti-Wear Performance Induced by Innovative Base Oil in Low Viscosity Engine Oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-Arup Gangopadhyay, Rob Zdrodowski, Z Liu
Total R&D-Nicolas Champagne, Nicolas Obrecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2343
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The oil and additive industry is challenged to meet future automotive legislations aimed at reducing worldwide CO2 emissions levels. The most efficient solution used to date has been to decrease oil viscosity leading to the introduction of new SAE grades. However this solution may soon reach its limit due to potential issues related to wear with lower engine oil viscosities. In this paper, an innovative solution is proposed that combines the use of a new tailor-made polyalkylene glycol (PAG) with specific anti-wear additives. Valvetrain wear measurements using radionuclide technique demonstrates the robustness of this solution. The wear performance was also confirmed in Sequence IVA test. An extensive tribological evaluation (film formation, wear and tribofilm surface analysis) of the interactions between the base oil and the anti-wear additives lead us to propose an underlying mechanism that can explain this performance benefit.
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Kinetic Modeling Study of NOx Conversion Based on Physicochemical Characteristics of Hydrothermally Aged SCR/DPF Catalyst

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ibaraki University-Naoki Ohya, Kohei Hiyama, Kotaro Tanaka, Mitsuru Konno
National Institute of AIST-Atsuko Tomita, Takeshi Miki, Yutaka Tai
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2386
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines have better fuel economy over comparable gasoline engines and are useful for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, to meet stringent emission standards, the technology for reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust needs to be improved. A conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and urea-SCR catalyst. Recently, more stringent regulations have led to the development of SCR systems with a larger volume and increased the cost of such systems. In order to solve these problems, an SCR catalyst-coated DPF (SCR/DPF) is proposed. An SCR/DPF system has lower volume and cost compared to the conventional SCR system. The SCR/DPF catalyst has two functions: combustion of PM and reduction of NOx emissions. As PM is removed from the DPF at high temperatures (>650°C), the SCR/DPF system is exposed to higher temperatures as compared with those in the conventional SCR system. In this study, we investigated the NOx reduction performance and the properties of a hydrothermally aged SCR/DPF catalyst. Using these…
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Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Yuki Nishida
Toyota Motor Corporation-Michitaka Yamamoto, Takayuki Hosogi, Tetsuji Watanabe
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2431
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm. Test results confirmed that the developed oil pump controlled the oil pressure with an undershoot of about 12%. The oil jets were also stopped from -10°C. The…
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Investigation of Combustion and Emission Performance of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Diesel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

University of Leeds-Yanlong Wu, Jason Ferns, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2400
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) diesel fuels have the potential to provide a reduced carbon footprint for diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore, it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion and emission performance including ignition delays, size segregated particulate number emissions and gaseous emissions. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A EURO5 emission compliant three litre, direct injection, intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions. A DMS500 particle size measurement instrument was used for measuring particles between 5 nm and 1000nm. The engine was instrumented with a number of thermocouples so that the engine conditions were closely monitored. Gaseous emissions…
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Comparative Study on Gasoline HCCI and DICI Combustion in High Load Range with High Compression Ratio for Passenger Cars Application

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Tsinghua University-Linjun Yu, Yanfei Li, Bowen Li, Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Xin He, Shi-jin Shuai
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2257
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
This study compared the combustion and emission characteristics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Direct Injection Compression Ignition (DICI) modes in a boosted and high compression ratio (17) engine fueled with gasoline and gasoline/diesel blend (80% gasoline by volume, denoted as G80). The injection strategy was adjusted to achieve the highest thermal efficiency at different intake pressures. The results showed that Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) was not observed in gasoline HCCI. However, 20% additional diesel could lower down the octane number and improve the autoignition reactivity of G80, which contributed to a weak LTHR, accounting for approximately 5% of total released heat.The combustion efficiency in gasoline DICI was higher than those in gasoline HCCI and G80 HCCI, while the exhaust loss and heat transfer loss in DICI mode were higher than those in HCCI mode. Increasing intake pressure improves the Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) in both HCCI and DICI mode, and when the intake pressure was 2.1 bar, gasoline DICI achieved the highest ITE of 49.3%, while the ITE of G80 HCCI was…
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A General Method for Fouling Injectors in Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicles and the Effects of Deposits on Vehicle Performance

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Corp.-Charles S. Shanahan, S. Scott Smith, Brian D. Sears
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2298
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The ubiquity of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles has been rapidly increasing across the globe due to the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles. GDI technology offers many advantages over conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines, such as improvements in fuel economy and higher engine power density; however, GDI technology presents unique challenges as well. GDI engines can be more susceptible to fuel injector deposits and have higher particulate emissions relative to PFI engines due to the placement of the injector inside the combustion chamber. Thus, the need for reliable test protocols to develop next generation additives to improve GDI vehicle performance is paramount. This work discloses a general test method for consistently fouling injectors in GDI vehicles and engines that can accommodate multiple vehicle/engine types, injector designs, and drive cycles, which allows for development of effective GDI fuel additives. A key factor to the versatility of this test protocol is the test fuel formulation, which uses added chemical accelerants to mimic the fouling effects of fuel aging and sulfur accumulation in the injector nozzle.…
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Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Doshisha Univ.-Akihiro Niwa, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura
Japan Automobile Research Institute-Takaaki Kitamura
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2375
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera. NH3 concentration is measured at 13 points of the cross section of the tail-pipe…
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0W-16 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil Compatible with Low Speed Pre-Ignition Performance

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sinopec Lubricant Co., Ltd-Hong Liu, Jiajia Jin, Hongyu Li
Toyota Motor Corp-Kazuo Yamamori, Toyoharu Kaneko, Minoru Yamashita
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2346
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable. The newly developed 0W-16 engine oil in this paper showed 1.0% fuel economy improvement (FEI) compared to typical GF-5 0W-20 engine oil. In addition, adequate fuel economy retention property of the 0W-16 engine oil was demonstrated in the ageing process. This…
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Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute-Michael Clifford Kocsis, Peter Morgan
The Lubrizol Corporation-Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Oliver Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2348
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used. However, if this same SAE 0W-8 oil is evaluated in an engine designed for SAE 5W-30, friction may increase and fuel economy could actually worsen. This hypothetical example illustrates the need…
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Methanol Fuel Testing on Port Fuel Injected Internal-Only EGR, HPL-EGR and D-EGR® Engine Configurations

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute-Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2285
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline. Although the methanol H2 reformate yield did not increase over gasoline for a given equivalence ratio, the total yield did increase due to an extended rich misfire limit of the dedicated cylinder. Methanol-fueled D-EGR extended the maximum load of the engine by 2 bar BMEP. It also…
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