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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Soy Biodiesel Oxidation at Vehicle Fuel System Temperature: Influence of Aged Fuel on Fresh Fuel Degradation to Simulate Refueling

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-James E. Anderson, Travis R. Collings, Sherry A. Mueller, James C. Ball, Timothy J. Wallington
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0809
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study of the effects of partially-oxidized biodiesel fuel on the degradation of fresh fuel was performed. A blend of soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in petroleum diesel fuel (30% v:v biodiesel, B30) was aged under accelerated conditions (90°C with aeration). Aging conditions focused on three different degrees of initial oxidation: 1) reduced oxidation stability (Rancimat induction period, IP); 2) high peroxide values (PV); and 3) high total acid number (TAN). Aged B30 fuel was mixed with fresh B30 fuel at two concentrations (10% and 30% m:m) and degradation of the mixtures at the above aging conditions was monitored for IP, PV, TAN, and FAME composition. Greater content of aged fuel carryover (30% m:m) corresponded to stronger effects. Oxidation stability was most adversely affected by high peroxide concentration (Scenario 2), while peroxide content was most reduced for the high TAN scenario (Scenario 3). However, changes in TAN and FAME composition were modest with all four scenarios reaching a plateau in TAN formation at similar times and FAME concentrations showing similar declines. The…
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Engine Oil Fuel Economy Testing - A Tale of Two Tests

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute-Peter Morgan, Michael Kocsis
The Lubrizol Corporation-Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Matthew D. Gieselman
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0882
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is not an absolute attribute, but is highly dependent on the method used to evaluate it. In this work, two test methods are used to evaluate the differences in fuel economy brought about by changes in engine oil viscosity grade and additive chemistry. The two test methods include a chassis dynamometer vehicle test and an engine dynamometer test. The vehicle testing was conducted using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing protocol while the engine dynamometer test uses the proposed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence VIE fuel economy improvement 1 (FEI1) testing methodology. In an effort to improve agreement between the two testing methods, the same model engine was used in both test methods, the General Motors (GM) 3.6 L V6 (used in the 2012 model year Chevrolet™ Malibu™ engine). Within the lubricant industry, this choice of engine is reinforced because it has been selected for use in the proposed Sequence VIE fuel economy test. Results indicate that agreement between methods does exist for some oils. However in the case of…
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The Development of Fuel Economy Test Method for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oil (The First HD Engine Test Method and the New JASO DH-2F Category)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

JASO Diesel Engine Oil Standard Revision Task Force
Cosmo Oil Lubricants Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Tatani, Atsushi Akamatsu, Ryuji Aoki
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0884
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper reviews the development of the first fuel economy engine test method for heavy duty diesel oil, as well as the new JASO DH-2F category introduced in April 2017 [1][2][3], which adds a fuel economy requirement to the JASO DH-2 requirements in the JASO M355:2015 standard. Recently, better fuel economy is required heavy duty diesel vehicles as well as gasoline vehicles. Therefore, advanced technologies have been applied to improve diesel engines, as well as diesel engine oils and additives, and achieve better fuel economy. However, the Automotive Diesel Engine Oil Standard (JASO M355) applied in Japan as a standard for diesel engine oils does not include any fuel economy requirements. Consequently, a JASO Diesel Engine Oil Standard Revision Task Force (Task Force) consisting of organizations from related industries, including the Japan Lubricating Oil Society (JALOS), developed an engine test method using a Hino N04C engine equipped with the latest technologies to comply with the 2010 Japanese emissions regulations. The method measures fuel economy performances for fresh and aged oils in JASO-specified engine tests using…
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Development of Meshwork DPF Catalyst for Fuel Economy Improvement

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Cataler Co., Ltd.-Tatsuro Sugino, Eriko Tanaka, Huong Tran, Norihiko Aono
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0925
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are an essential aftertreatment component for reducing the PM emissions of diesel engine vehicles. Installation of a DPF can achieve high filtration efficiency, but PM filtration also causes a high pressure drop due to deep bed filtration. Consequently, periodic PM regeneration is necessary to keep a low pressure drop, but this causes significant deterioration in fuel efficiency. Improving the efficiency of PM regeneration and keeping the pressure drop low are major challenges faced by DPF manufacturers in meeting future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper presents a novel morphological catalyst layer for DPFs, which is located in the surface of the inlet DPF channels and has been formed into a highly porous and three-dimensional meshwork shape. These features enhanced not only the prevention of deep bed filtration to reduce the pressure drop, but also the soot-catalyst contact for a faster PM regeneration rate. Cold flow and transient tests were used to evaluate the pressure drop, while passive and active regeneration conditions were used to investigate PM regeneration. The improvement in fuel economy…
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On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory-Forrest Jehlik
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0892
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle’s fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of “off-cycle credits” that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.
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Laminar Burning, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Premixed Methane- Dissociated Methanol-Air Mixtures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Changan Automobile Co Ltd-Bin Liu, Tie Gang Hu, Jing Zhong
Chongqing Changan Automobile Co Ltd-Zhang Song ZHAN
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1289
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This research presents an experimental study of the laminar burning combustion and emission characteristics of premixed methane -dissociated methanol-air mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber. All experiments were conducted at 3 bar initial pressure and 373K initial temperature. The dissociated methanol fractions were from 20% to 80% with 20% intervals, and the equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 1.8 with 0.2 intervals. The images of flame propagation were visualized by using a schlieren system. The combustion pressure data were measured and exhaust emissions were sampled with a portable exhaust gas analyzer. The results show that the unstretched laminar burning velocities increased significantly with dissociated methanol enrichment. The Markstein length decreased with increasing dissociated methanol fraction and decreasing equivalence ratio. The lewis number decreased with increasing dissociated methanol fraction due to the enhancing of diffusional thermal instability and hydrodynamic instability. The highest maximum combustion pressure was observed when the equivalence ratio was around 1.2 with 80% dissociated methanol added. The ignition delay time decreased with increasing dissociated methanol fraction. As the fraction of dissociated methanol…
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Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Engine Oil Additives on Silicone Rubber

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

JXTG Nippon Oil and Energy Corporation-Shintaro Kusuhara, Shingo Matsuki, Yuji Shitara
NOK Corporation-Kenichi Yoshimura, Kenichi Kunieda, Nozomu Suzuki
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0877
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In developing engine oils, it is crucial to consider their compatibility with the rubbers used for seals. Among the different seal rubbers, silicone rubber is particularly susceptible to attack by acids and bases, which means it would be more likely to be affected by certain engine oil additives. In this study, the effects of some major additives, namely detergents, zinc dialkyl-dithiophopshate (ZDDP) and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC), on silicone rubber were investigated. Silicone rubber test specimens were immersed in sample oils containing these additives for a prescribed period at 150°C, then the physical properties of the test specimens were measured to compare the effects of the different additives. It was found that ZDDPs dramatically reduce the tensile strength of silicone rubber, with primary ZDDP having a greater effect than secondary ZDDP. Analyses of the test specimens by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the silicone rubbers had degraded, causing changes in the polymer structure. The test specimen immersed in sample oil containing primary ZDDP was degraded to a deeper section than that immersed…
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Development of Low Viscosity API SN 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil Considering Chain Wear Performance

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Takumaru Sagawa, Seiichi Nakano, Yohei Bito, Yusuke Koike, Sachiko Okuda, Rika Suzuki
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0881
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
A low viscosity API SN 0W-16 engine oil was developed to achieve a 0.5% improvement in fuel efficiency over the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Oil consumption and engine wear are the main roadblocks to the development of low viscosity engine oils. However, optimization of the base oil and additives successfully prevent oil consumption and wear. First, it was confirmed in engine tests that NOACK volatility is still an effective indicator of oil consumption even for a low viscosity grade like 0W-16. As a result of base oil volatility control, the newly developed oil achieves the same level of oil consumption as the current GF-5/API SN 0W-20 oil. Second, it was found that the base oil viscosity and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) had a significant effect on chain wear in rig testing that simulated silent chain wear. For the same base oil viscosity, the new oil maintains the same oil film thickness under high surface pressure. The same base oil as that of the current GF-5 0W-20 oil was selected to obtain that oil film thickness.…
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New Perspectives on the Temperature Dependence of Lubricant Additives on Copper Corrosion

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Lubrizol Ltd.-Gregory Hunt
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0891
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Modern automotive transmissions contain copper and copper alloys in the form of washers, bushings, brazes and electrical components. Corrosion that occurs with any of these components especially with electrical contacts can result in a malfunction of the vehicle control systems and loss of vehicle drivability. The compatibility of transmission lubricants with copper and copper alloys is an increasingly important consideration in the design of new additive technology. Traditional methods for monitoring corrosion processes and mechanisms in real time can be both time consuming and challenging to interpret, especially when evaluations at multiple temperatures are required. This work challenges some of the industry-held beliefs around lubricant additive corrosion processes, especially at elevated temperature (>130 °C). These new insights on the kinetics and mechanisms of copper corrosion in the presence of lubricant additives over a range of operating temperatures using a new wire resistance test that enables real-time corrosion monitoring will be discussed. The corrosion processes observed here are highly dependent upon temperature and accelerating tests based on increasing temperature presumes the dominant kinetic mechanism remains constant…
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Catalyst Performance of Monolith-Type Diesel Particulate Filter having Microgear-Design based on Asymmetric Hexagonal Channel Geometry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sumika Ceramics Poland Sp. z o.o-Kentaro Iwasaki
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0926
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been used in the automobile industry for around a decade. As a key technology for emissions control the DPF design needs to be increasingly optimized to expand its function to deal with any emission not just particulate matter (PM). NOx emission regulations need to be met as well as CO2 targets through minimizing any fuel penalty. Cost is extremely important to deliver an effective after-treatment catalyst. Aluminum titanate and cordierite-based material DPFs are very cost effective in part because their properties allow monolith-manufacturing. Furthermore, geometrical design of the DPF channel structure can contribute to multi-functionalization of the DPF to provide further advantages. Square and asymmetric square-designed channel structures have been utilized on current after-treatment DPF systems. Additionally, asymmetric hexagonal-designed channel technology has recently been shown to provide lower backpressure and higher ash-capacity for longer DPF lifetime usage. A key concept is to increase the geometric surface area on the inlet channels of a DPF for soot and ash-loading. Asymmetric hexagonal channels can have 1.3 times higher surface area. For…
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