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A Study on Improvement of Fuel Economy of Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks with New Type of Hybrid Electric Assist Engine System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Nobunori Okui
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2358
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the fuel economy of the heavy duty trucks at a highway driving condition, the heavy duty hybrid trucks with new type of hybrid electric assist engine system were proposed at the previous report. The new system consists of a downsizing diesel engine with a two-stage charging structure, which has an electric supercharger with bypass circuit and a conventional turbocharger, the hybrid electric motor and the small-capacity battery. The electric power consumption of an electric supercharger is equivalent to the amount of the regeneration power produced during high-speed driving where the opportunity of the regeneration is small.In this report, an electric supercharger for the heavy duty hybrid truck was produced experimentally. First, the engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated using the 4 cylinder diesel engine equipped with an electric supercharger. Next, the fuel economy of this heavy duty hybrid truck driving in a Japanese in-city mode and a Japanese interurban mode was investigated by using the “Hybrid Powertrain Test Bed System”.
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Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Jaguar Land Rover-Jan Prins
Loughborough University-Chrysostomos-Alexandros Bekakos, Dan J. O'Boy
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8029
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
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Piston Cooling Nozzle Oil Jet Evaluation Using CFD and a High Speed Camera

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cummins Inc.-Jordan Kelleher, Nikhil Ajotikar
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8100
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Piston cooling nozzles/jets play several crucial roles in the power cylinder of an internal combustion engine. Primarily, they help with the thermal management of the piston and provide lubrication to the cylinder liner and the piston’s wrist pin. In order to evaluate the oil jet characteristics from various piston cooling nozzle (PCN) designs, a quantitative and objective process was developed. The PCN characterization began with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulent model to analyze the mean oil velocity and flow distribution at the nozzle exit/tip. Subsequently, the PCN was tested on a rig for a given oil temperature and pressure. A high-speed camera captured images at 2500 frames per second to observe the evolution of the oil stream as a function of distance from the nozzle exit. An algorithm comprised of standard digital image processing techniques was created to calculate the oil jet width and density. Finally, the results of the CFD model were compared to the key metrics identified by the high-speed imaging and were found to be in good agreement. It was discovered…
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Effect of Steering Assistance Control by External Information Feedback Control and Chassis Control

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Kogakuin University-Ryo Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Nozaki
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8104
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we report on the development of a steering assistance control system that feeds back information on the outside environment collected by laser sensors to the vehicle driver. The system consists of an emergency avoidance assistance control program that performs obstacle detection and avoidance, as well as a cornering assistance control program that operates by detecting the white lines painted on roadways. Driving simulator experiments were conducted in order to confirm the effectiveness of these functions, as well as to improve understanding of the synergistic effects of the steering assistance and chassis control functions: camber angle control and derivative steering assistance (DSA) control. In our emergency avoidance experiments, which were assisted by the obstacle detection function, the automatic override function successfully intervened to prevent accidents in situations where it determined that manual steering by the driver would be too late to avoid the detected obstacle. In our experiments involving cornering assistance by white line detection, smoother steering around curves was facilitated by the system’s ability to set up an optimal approach earlier than…
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Characterization of Aerodynamic Design Spaces for Adjustable Tractor Surfaces

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Exa Corporation-Bhargav Sowmianarayanan
Volvo Group North America, Inc.-Justin J. Novacek
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8147
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Trailer positioning plays a significant role in the overall aerodynamics of a tractor-trailer combination and varies widely depending on configuration and intended use. In order to minimize aerodynamic drag over a range of trailer positions, adjustable aerodynamic devices may be utilized. For maximum benefit, it is necessary to determine the optimal position of the aerodynamic device for each trailer position. This may be achieved by characterizing a two-dimensional design space consisting of trailer height and tractor-trailer gap length, with aerodynamic drag as the response. CFD simulations carried out using a Lattice-Boltzmann based method were coupled with modeFRONTIER for the creation of multiple Kriging Response Surfaces. Simulations were carried out in multiple phases, allowing for the generation of intermediate response surfaces to estimate predictive error and track response surface convergence. These response surfaces were employed to generate an optimal positioning map for the given aerodynamic device. This methodology was further refined by obtaining positioning maps for multiple tractor configurations.
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Real World Duty Cycle Development Method for Non-road Mobile Machinery (NRMM)

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eaton-QingHui Yuan
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8118
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Emission, fuel economy and productivity in non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) depend largely on drive cycles. Understanding drive cycles can provide the in-depth information and knowledge that help the system integrator better optimize the vehicle management system. Some non-road engine test cycles already exist nowadays. However, these cycles are mainly for engine emission regulation purpose, and not closely tied to real world applications. Therefore, from both industries and academia, it has been the common practice to instrument and retrofit a vehicle, assign a professional driver operate the retrofitted vehicle for real testing, and compare the results to the baseline vehicle under the similar operating conditions. Obviously this approach is time consuming and resource intensive. In this paper, we attempt to address this issue by introducing a method of constructing standard drive cycles from in-field operation data. The constructed drive cycle will affect design, analysis, optimization and testing of NRMM. Moreover, the standardization of such drive cycles will ease measurement of performance metrics across the industry.
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Heavy Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Automatic Emergency Braking Simulation with Experimental Validation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

NHTSA-Devin Elsasser
Ohio Northern University-David Mikesell
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8010
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Field testing of Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) systems using real actual heavy trucks and buses is unavoidably limited by the dangers and expenses inherent in crash-imminent scenarios. For this paper, a heavy vehicle is defined as having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) that exceeds 4536 kg (10,000 lbs.). High fidelity Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation systems have the potential to enable safe and accurate laboratory testing and evaluation of heavy vehicle AEB systems. This paper describes the setup and experimental validation of such a HiL simulation system. An instrumented Volvo tractor-trailer equipped with a Bendix Wingman Advanced System, including the FLR20 forward looking radar and AEB system, was put through a battery of different types of track tests to benchmark the AEB performance. Two heavy vehicle crash scenarios were tested: (1) Slower-moving lead vehicle scenario, where the subject vehicle’s AEB detects and responds to a vehicle moving more slowly in its immediate forward path (“lead vehicle”), and the (2) Decelerating lead vehicle scenario, where the lead vehicle suddenly decelerates in the path of the subject vehicle.…
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An Innovative Approach to Kinematic Analysis of Multibody Hydraulic Actuation Systems

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Marco Francia, Massimo Milani, Luca Montorsi
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8120
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
The paper focuses on the development of an innovative methodology for the direct measurement of the main kinematic variables in multibody hydraulic actuation systems.The analysis investigates how the motion capture technique has been applied to the experimental determination of position, velocity and acceleration of hydraulically controlled actuation systems for off-highway machines.A number of earth-moving machines has been taken into account, in particular a mini-excavator articulated arm has been equipped with both a standard mechanical system for position and acceleration measurement (including different accelerometers, linear and angular transducers), and a set of IR markers for motion capture application. First, the hydraulically controlled boom-arm-bucket system has been operated using a control routine reproducing a reference operating condition, in order to define the accuracy of the motion capture system in detecting the kinematic quantities’ variations.At the same time, the hydraulic variables have been also acquired to monitor the behavior during the machine working routine. Thus, the results obtained by the different experimental techniques have been compared, in order to state the reliability of the motion capture technique to…
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CFD Correlation with Wind-Tunnel for Dry Van Trailer Aerodynamic Devices

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Exa Corporation-Devaraj Dasarathan, Matthew Ellis, Surya Chinnamani, Ray Ayala
Laydon Composites-James Haws
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8016
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
The primary purpose of this paper is to correlate the CFD simulations performed using PowerFLOW, a Lattice Boltzmann based method, and wind tunnel tests performed at a wind tunnel facility on 1/8th scaled tractor-trailer models. The correlations include results using an aerodynamic-type tractor paired with several trailer configurations, including a baseline trailer without any aerodynamic devices as well as combinations of trailer side skirts and a tractor-trailer gap flow management device. CFD simulations were performed in a low blockage open road environment at full scale Reynolds number to understand how the different test environments impact total aerodynamic drag values and performance deltas between trailer aerodynamic devices.There are very limited studies with the Class-8 sleeper tractor and 53ft long trailer comparing wind tunnel test and CFD simulation with and without trailer aerodynamic device. This paper is to fill this gap.
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Multi-Domain Simulation Model of a Wheel Loader

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cummins Inc.-Rohit Saha, Long-Kung Hwang, Mahesh Madurai Kumar
Guangxi Liugong Machinery Co. Ltd.-Yunfeng Zhao, Chen Yu
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8055
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
Wheel loader subsystems are multi-domain in nature, including controls, mechanisms, hydraulics, and thermal. This paper describes the process of developing a multi-domain simulation of a wheel loader. Working hydraulics, kinematics of the working tool, driveline, engine, and cooling system are modeled in LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim. Contacts between boom/bucket and bucket/ground are defined to constrain the movement of the bucket and boom. The wheel loader has four heat exchangers: charge air cooler, radiator, transmission oil cooler, and hydraulic oil cooler. Heat rejection from engine, energy losses from driveline, and hydraulic subsystem are inputs to the heat exchangers. 3D CFD modeling was done to calibrate airflows through heat exchangers in LMS Amesim. CFD modeling was done in ANSYS FLUENT® using a standard k - ε model with detailed fan and underhood geometry.Critical wheel loader drive cycle inputs into the model have been obtained from testing and have been used to validate the system response and cycle fuel consumption. Predicted engine speed, pump pressures, machine ground speed, and cycle fuel consumption were found to correlate with the test…
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