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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
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Measured Power Dissipation of Shock Absorbers on Light and Heavy Commercial Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

CSIRO Energy Tech-Christopher Gill, Christopher Knight, Scott McGarry
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9026
Published 2014-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle shock absorbers are designed to dissipate kinetic energy through frictional viscous forces. In some circumstances, this can be in the order of kilowatts of instantaneous power dissipation. This study quantitatively assesses the vehicle damper system energy dissipation of a low-mass utility vehicle and a high-mass hauling vehicle, using empirically derived regression models of the working dampers and custom data logging equipment. The damper force and power is derived from post-processing of the measurement of critical damper metrics, including linear velocity and temperature. Under typical operating conditions, the low-mass utility vehicle showed an average power dissipation of 39 W for a single shock absorber, and approximately 150 W for a complete vehicle-damper model. The high-mass hauling vehicle demonstrated an average power dissipation of 102 W for a single shock absorber, and approximately 600 W for a complete vehicle-damper model under laden operating conditions. Our results provide evidence of the amount of energy available for harvesting from a vehicles' damper system using a kinetic energy recovery device.
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Electronic Differential Implementation in a Delta-Type Human Powered Tricycle

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Alexander TEI of Thessaloniki-Theodoros Kosmanis, Georgios Koretsis, Athanasios Manolas
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9028
Published 2014-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The implementation of an electronic differential system in a delta-type, electrically assisted, three wheel Human Powered Vehicle is the subject of this paper. The electronic differential algorithm is based on the turning angle of the vehicle and its geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis is applied in a realistic human powered tricycle constructed in the premises of the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The system's efficiency is validated through test measurements performed on the rear wheels during vehicle's operation in appropriately selected routes. The measurements are performed for both typical cornering and oversteering.
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Influence of Gear Geometry on Gearbox Noise Reduction - An Experimental Investigation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Ashok Leyland Pvt Ltd-Uday Nayak, S Aravind, Sunil Aundhekar
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9029
Published 2014-10-01 by SAE International in United States
The present competitive market scenario and customer requirements demand for improved NVH quality and to meet statutory norms without increased cost. When gears are used for power transmission, gear noise is of particular concern. The noise may be created due to harmonics of the rotating and meshing internal components. This has a significant effect on the overall vehicle sound quality. Various factors contribute to gearbox noise. Some of them include shaft misalignments, gear geometry, lubrication, bearings and loose mountings. Hence it is essential to study which factors contribute to the gearbox noise and to develop countermeasures for the same. Although a number of factors may contribute to gear noise as mentioned, the scope of this paper is limited to the effect of gear geometry alone on the gearbox noise.This paper offers an experimental investigation of reducing the noise levels in Ashok Leyland gearbox by modifying the gear tooth profile on one of the gear trains in order to meet the futuristic noise statutory norms. The modification includes controlling the tip relief and introduction of lead-profile…
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Pareto Optimization of Heavy Duty Truck Rear Underrun Protection Design for Regulative Load Cases

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Ford Otosan-Berna Balta, Onur Erk, H. Ali Solak
Vienna University of Technology-Numan Durakbasa
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9027
Published 2014-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Rear underrun protection device is crucial for rear impact and rear under-running of the passenger vehicles to the heavy duty trucks. Rear underrun protection device design should obey the safety regulative rules and successfully pass several test conditions. The objective and scope of this paper is the constrained optimization of the design of a rear underrun protection device (RUPD) beam of heavy duty trucks for impact loading using correlated CAE and test methodologies. In order to minimize the design iteration phase of the heavy duty truck RUPD, an effective, real-life testing correlated, finite element model have been constructed via RADIOSS software. Later on, Pareto Optimization has been applied to the finite element model, by constructing designed experiments. The best solution has been selected in terms of cost, manufacturing and performance. Finally, real-life verification testing has been applied for the correlation of the optimum solution.
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Validation and Design of Heavy Vehicle Cooling System with Waste Heat Recovery Condenser

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Cummins Inc-Jon Dickson
Exa Corporation-Matthew Ellis
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2339
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
Fuel efficiency for tractor/trailer combinations continues to be a key area of focus for manufacturers and suppliers in the commercial vehicle industry. Improved fuel economy of vehicles in transit can be achieved through reductions in aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and driveline losses. Fuel economy can also be increased by improving the efficiency of the thermal to mechanical energy conversion of the engine. One specific approach to improving the thermal efficiency of the engine is to implement a waste heat recovery (WHR) system that captures engine exhaust heat and converts this heat into useful mechanical power through use of a power fluid turbine expander.Several heat exchangers are required for this Rankine-based WHR system to collect and reject the waste heat before and after the turbine expander. The WHR condenser, which is the heat rejection component of this system, can be an additional part of the front-end cooling module. Packaging this WHR condenser as part of the front-end cooling module can be an engineering challenge given the tight underhood environment where the current powertrain cooling components…
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Aerodynamic Impact of Tractor-Trailer in Drafting Configuration

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Exa Corporation-Brandon Gifford, Matthew Ellis
Peterbilt-Jeff Smith, Rick Mihelic
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2436
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
On-highway tractor-trailer vehicles operate in a complex aerodynamic environment that includes influences of surrounding vehicles. Typical aerodynamic analyses and testing of single vehicles on test track, in wind tunnel or in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) do not account for these real world effects. However, it is possible with simulation and on-road testing to evaluate these aerodynamic interactions. CFD and physical testing of multiple vehicle interactions show that traffic interactions can impact the overall drag of leading and trailing vehicles. This paper will discuss results found in evaluating the effects of separation distances on tractor-trailer aerodynamics in on-road and CFD evaluations using a time-accurate Lattice Boltzmann Method based approach and the ramifications for improving real world prediction versus controlled single vehicle testing.
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Effect of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Intertek-Jeremy Diez, Kevin Burton
Link Engineering Company-Alex Nicholson
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2438
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results…
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Identification of Vehicle Mass and Braking Force Distribution Algorithm for Electronic Braking System of Heavy-Duty Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

ASCL, Jilin University-Hongyu Zheng, Linlin Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2387
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
The active safety and stability of tractor and trailer (heavy-duty vehicle) have becoming big concern among the road transportation industry. The purpose of this paper is to specify the research differential braking force distribution control algorithm to improve braking safety of heavy-duty vehicle. The ideal braking force of each wheel axle should be proportional to vertical load of vehicle that is also related to the road adhesion coefficient, the load and the braking intensity. Reasonable braking force distribution can enhance its braking stability and shorten the braking distance by making full use of the road adhesion condition of each wheel. A braking force distribution algorithm is proposed, in which the objective braking force change with the axle load of vehicle.A controller is built with Matlab® software and TruckSim® software on vehicles respectively equipped with electric braking system (EBS) on typical condition and the simulation results show that the control strategy can shorten the braking distance and improve vehicle safety.
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Analysis of Vehicle Lateral Dynamics due to Variable Wind Gusts

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Helwan University-Youhanna William, Walid Oraby, Sameh Metwally
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2449
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
This study presents a practical theoretical method to judge the aerodynamic response of buses in the early design stage based on both aerodynamic and design parameters. A constant longitudinal velocity 2-DOF vehicle lateral dynamics model is used to investigate the lateral response of a bus under nine different wind gusts excitations. An appropriate 3-D CFD simulation model of the bus shape results is integrated with carefully chosen design parameters data of a real bus chassis and body to obtain vehicle lateral dynamic response to the prescribed excitations.Vehicle model validity is carried out then, the 2-DOF vehicle lateral dynamics model has been executed in MATLAB Simulink environment with the selected data. Simulation represents the vehicle in a straight ahead path then entered a gusting wind section of the track with a fixed steering wheel. Vehicle response includes lateral deviation (LD), lateral acceleration (LA), yaw angle (YA) and yaw rate (YR). Results showed that in case of 25 m/s wind gust [which corresponds to 45° wind relative yaw angle (βw)], the vehicle Lateral Deviation (LD) maintained about…
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Identification of Sound Source Model Using Inverse-Numerical Acoustic Analysis: Validation of Effectiveness and Applicability

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Doshisha Univ-Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Yamauchi
Yanmar Co., Ltd.-Masahiro Akei
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2318
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an identification of a sound source model for a diesel engine installed on an agricultural machine by Inverse-Numerical Acoustic analysis (INA), and the applicability of the identified sound source model. INA is a method to identify surface vibrations from surrounding sound pressures. This method is applicable for a complicated-shaped sound source like an engine. In order to confirm the accuracy of the identified sound source model, the surface vibrations of the engine are compared with the measured results. Moreover, in the condition of the simulated engine room, the surrounding sound pressure levels of the engine are predicted using the sound source model and the boundary element method (BEM). For the verification of the prediction accuracy, the surrounding sound pressures of the engine are measured using the testing device which simulated actual engine room, namely an enclosure. As a result, the sound source model of the diesel engine is identified accurately using the INA. In addition, the surrounding sound pressure levels of engine enclosure are predicted accurately using the sound source model. These…
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