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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles
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Sliding Mode Control of Hydraulic Excavator for Automated Grading Operation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

The University of Alabama-Jiaqi Xu, Hwan-Sik Yoon
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0010
Published 2018-06-07 by SAE International in United States
Although ground grading is one of the most common tasks that hydraulic excavators perform in typical work sites, proper grading is not easy for less-skilled operators as it requires coordinated manipulation of multiple hydraulic cylinders. In order to help alleviate this difficulty, automated grading systems are considered as an effective alternative to manual operations of hydraulic excavators. In this article, a sliding mode controller design is presented for automated grading control of a hydraulic excavator. First, an excavator manipulator model is developed in Simulink by using SimMechanics and SimHydraulics toolboxes. Then, a sliding mode controller is designed to control the manipulator to trace a predefined trajectory for a grading task. For a comparison study, a PI controller is used to control the manipulator to perform a grading task following the same desired trajectory and the performance is compared with those obtained by the sliding mode controller. The simulation results show that the sliding mode controller can control the grading operation with less tracking errors than the PI controller.
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Stability Analysis of Combined Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer Based on Phase-Plane Method

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Jiangsu University-Ren He, Zhecheng Jing, Xiaomin Shen
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0012
Published 2018-06-04 by SAE International in United States
An analysis method for the stability of combined braking system of tractor-semitrailer based on phase-plane is investigated. Based on a 9 degree of freedom model, considering longitudinal load transfer, nonlinear model of tire and other factors, the braking stability of tractor-semitrailer is analyzed graphically on the phase plane. The stability of both tractor and semitrailer with different retarder gear is validated with the energy plane, β plane, yaw angle plane and hinged angle plane. The result indicates that in the long downhill with curve condition, both tractor and semitrailer show good stability when retarder is working at 1st and 2nd gear, and when it is at 3rd gear, the tractor is close to be unstable while semitrailer is unstable already. Besides, tractor and semitrailer both lose stability when retarder is working at the 4th gear.
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Correlation Model of Subjective and Objective Evaluation Based on Grey GM(0,N) for Automobile Sound Quality

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Nanjing Institute Of Technology-Zhendong Zhao
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0008
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
Correlation analysis of subjective and objective evaluation for automobile sound quality is an important topic in automobile technology fields. In view of the deficiency of multi-dimensional linear regression analysis and the theoretical merits of grey system method, grey comprehensive relational degree was calculated to analyze the contribution of objective evaluation data to subjective evaluation. The main objective variables affecting the subjective feeling were determined. The variables include loudness, sharpness and shaking degrees. Grey GM(0,4) model was established as a quantitative expression for describing the subjective and objective evaluation correlation. The results of residual test and posterior-variance-test show that the established model was accurate and the model can be used to analyze and predict subjective and objective evaluation data of automobile sound quality.
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A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Influence of Separation Distance, Lateral Stagger, and Trailer Configuration on the Drag-Reduction Potential of a Two-Truck Platoon

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

National Research Council Canada-Brian R. McAuliffe, Mojtaba Ahmadi-Baloutaki
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0011
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
A wind-tunnel study was undertaken to investigate the drag reduction potential of two-truck platooning, in the context of understanding some of the factors that may influence the potential fuel savings and greenhouse-gas reductions. Testing was undertaken in the National Research Council Canada 2 m × 3 m Wind Tunnel with two 1/15-scale models of modern aerodynamic tractors paired with dry-van trailers configured with and without combinations of side-skirts and boat-tails. Separation distances of 0.14, 0.28, 0.49, 0.70 and 1.04 vehicle lengths were tested (3 m, 6 m, 10.5 m, 15 m, and 22.5 m full scale). Additionally, within-lane lateral offsets up to 0.31 vehicle widths (0.8 m full scale) were evaluated, along with a full-lane offset of 1.42 vehicle widths (3.7 m full scale). This study has made use of a wind-averaged-drag coefficient as the primary metric for evaluating the effect of vehicle platooning. The lead-vehicle model experienced improved drag reduction as the separation distance decreased, with no significant influence of vehicle configuration on the results. Of the matched vehicle-model pairs, the case with side-skirts…
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Adaptive Transmission Shift Strategy Based on Online Characterization of Driver Aggressiveness

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Clemson University-Darui Zhang, Andrej Ivanco
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0009
Published 2018-06-04 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicles contribute to the majority of freight transportation in the United States. They are also significant fuel consumers, with over 23% of fuel used in transportation in the United States. The gas price volatility and increasingly stringent regulation on greenhouse-gas emissions have driven manufacturers to adopt new fuel-efficient technologies. Among others, an advanced transmission control strategy, which can provide tangible improvement with low incremental cost. In the commercial sector, individual drivers have little or no interest in vehicle fuel economy, contrary to fleet owners. Aggressive driving behavior can greatly increase the real-world vehicle fuel consumption. However, the effectiveness of transmission calibration to match the shift strategy to the driving characteristics is still a challenge. In this article, a new adaptive shift strategy is proposed, which uses the driver score as a proxy to match the driving characteristics in real time and contribute to a better fuel economy. Drivability objective is also included in the optimization through an estimated torque reserve and it is subsequently evaluated via a newly developed metric. The adaptive shift strategy…
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Measurement and Analysis of the Operations of Drayage Trucks in the Houston Area in Terms of Activities and Exhaust Emissions

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eastern Research Group, Inc.-Alan P. Stanard, Sandeep Kishan, Michael Sabisch
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Carl Fulper
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0007
Published 2018-05-22 by SAE International in United States
The effects of exhaust emissions on public welfare have prompted the US Environmental Protection Agency to take various actions toward understanding, modeling, and reducing air pollution from vehicles. This study was performed to better understand exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel-powered tractor-trailer trucks that operate in drayage service, which involves the moving of shipping containers to or from port terminals. The study involved the use of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) to measure both gaseous and particulate matter (PM) mass emission rates and record various vehicle and engine parameters from the test trucks as they performed their normal drayage service. These measurements were supplemented with port terminal gate entry/exit logs for all drayage trucks entering the two Port of Houston Authority container terminals. The datasets were combined to analyze model year characteristics of drayage trucks over time, evaluate port visit frequencies and durations, assess geographic distributions of trucks that perform port service, and estimate the pollutant emissions related to drayage operations. When compared to certification results, measured pollutant emissions generally exceeded certification standards in terms of…
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