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SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains
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Analyzing the Energy Consumption Variation during Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Conventional, Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Eric Rask
Colorado State Univ-Jake Bucher, Thomas Bradley
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1805
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption. This paper will present the observed energy consumption variation as measured from the variation in the battery net energy change (NEC), and the variation observed during thermal dynamometer testing. Results will be provided for a variety of vehicle architectures tested on common drive cycles.
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Compact, Safe and Efficient Wireless and Inductive Charging for Plug-In Hybrids and Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Hella Electronics Corp.-Alan Brown
Hella KGaA Hueck & Co.-Andre Körner, Juris Tlatlik
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1892
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Conventional charging systems for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles currently use cables to connect to the grid. This methodology creates several disadvantages, including tampering, risk, depreciation and non-value added user efforts. Loose or faulty cables may also create a safety issue. Wireless charging for electric vehicles delivers both a simple, reliable and safe charging process. The system enhances consumer adoption and promotes the integration of electric vehicles into the automotive market. Increased access to the grid enables a higher level of flexibility for storage management, increasing battery longevity.The power class of 3.7kW or less is an optimal choice for global standardization and implementation, due to the readily available power installations for potential customers throughout the world. One of the key features for wireless battery chargers are the inexpensive system costs, reduced content and light weight, easing vehicle integration.This paper demonstrates a wireless charging design with minimal component content. It includes a car pickup coil with 300 mm side length and low volume and mass 1.5 dm3 power interface electronics. After an overview of its hardware…
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A Study on How to Utilize Hilly Road Information in Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy of FCHEVs

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Hyundai Motor Co.-Seongpil Ryu
KAIST-Jihun Han, Youngjin Park, Dongsuk Kum
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1827
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an adaptation method of equivalent factor in equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) using hilly road information. Instantaneous optimization approach such as ECMS is one of real-time controllers. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that ECMS achieves near-optimum results with the selection of the appropriate equivalent factor. However, a lack of hilly road information no longer guarantees near-optimum results as well as charge-sustaining of ECMS under hilly road conditions. In this paper, first, an optimal control problem is formulated to derive ECMS analytical solution based on simplified models. Then, we proposed updating method of equivalent factor based on sensitivity analysis. The proposed method tries to mimic the globally optimal equivalent factor trajectory extracted from dynamic programming solutions. Finally, simulations for various hilly roads are carried out for validation of the proposed adaptation method of equivalent factor. Results show that the proposed method generates similar equivalent factor trajectory with globally optimal equivalent factor trajectory in the specific drive condition. In conclusion, if future vehicle velocity can be assumed…
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Control Variables Optimization and Feedback Control Strategy Design for the Blended Operating Regime of an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Univ of Zagreb-Branimir Škugor, Mihael Cipek, Joško Deur
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1898
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In an authors' previous SAE publication, an energy management control strategy has been proposed for the basic, charge-depleting/charge-sustaining (CD/CS) regime of an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The strategy is based on combining a rule-based controller, including a state-of-charge regulator, with an equivalent consumption minimization strategy. This paper presents an extension of the control strategy, which can provide a favorable vehicle behavior in the more general blended (BLND) operating regime, as well. Dynamic programming-based control variables optimization is first conducted to gain an insight into the vehicle optimal behavior in the BLND regime, facilitate the feedback control strategy development/extension, and serve as a benchmark for the control strategy verification. Next, a parameter optimization method is applied to find optimal values of critical engine on/off thresholds. Finally, the control strategy is verified against the optimal benchmark for several repetitive certified driving cycles, and the results are compared with those obtained for the basic CD/CS regime.
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Modeling and Simulation of a Series Hybrid CNG Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Clemson University-Bashar Alzuwayer, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Pierluigi Pisu, Pietro Giovenco, Paul Venhovens
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1802
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Predicting fuel economy during early stages of concept development or feasibility study for a new type of powertrain configuration is an important key factor that might affect the powertrain configuration decision to meet CAFE standards. In this paper an efficient model has been built in order to evaluate the fuel economy for a new type of charge sustaining series hybrid vehicle that uses a Genset assembly (small 2 cylinders CNG fueled engine coupled with a generator). A first order mathematical model for a Li-Ion polymer battery is presented based on actual charging /discharging datasheet. Since the Genset performance data is not available, normalized engine variables method is used to create powertrain performance maps. An Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) has been implemented to determine how much power is supplied to the electric motor from the battery and the Genset. Finally the simulator has been tested for different driving cycles and the results which include fuel consumption, battery state of charge and the vehicle drivability performance are shown.
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Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Forrest Jehlik
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Tim Laclair
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0818
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle.The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes. Application of response surface modeling to the synthetic drive cycle is shown to predict energy consumption of the three EPA cycles within 2.6% of the actual measured values. Additionally, the response model may be used to predict energy consumption of any cycle within the speed/acceleration envelope of the…
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Optimal Design of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Wide Constant-Power Region Operation: Considering Thermal and Electromagnetic Aspects

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

IFP Energies Novelles-Abdenour Abdelli
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1889
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper proposes a design optimisation of an Interior Permanent Magnet synchronous motors with maximum output power density and suitable for wide constant-power region operation. In this paper, analytical magnetic and electrical models of the machine are developed to calculate parameters and variables of the machine needed for a design optimization such as flux, resistance and inductances. And then, the thermal aspect is modelled using a thermal lumped-parameter network which allows to estimate the machine temperatures at key points such as the windings and the magnet. These models are included in the optimization loop and so are evaluated at each iteration. The optimization method uses a differential evolution algorithm (DEA). Finally, output performances of the designed motor are verified by finite element analysis (FEA).
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Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles based on Pareto Optimal Maps

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Co.-Alexander T. Zaremba, Ciro Soto, Mohammad Shakiba-herfeh, Mark Jennings
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1820
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Pareto optimal map concept has been applied to the optimization of the vehicle system control (VSC) strategy for a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. The methodology relies on an inner-loop optimization process to define Pareto maps of the best engine and electric motor/generator operating points given wheel power demand, vehicle speed, and battery power. Selected levels of model fidelity, from simple to very detailed, can be used to generate the Pareto maps. Optimal control is achieved by applying Pontryagin's minimum principle which is based on minimization of the Hamiltonian comprised of the rate of fuel consumption and a co-state variable multiplied by the rate of change of battery SOC. The approach delivers optimal control for lowest fuel consumption over a drive cycle while accounting for all critical vehicle operating constraints, e.g. battery charge balance and power limits, and engine speed and torque limits. The methodology has been verified through comparison with the production VSC strategy of the 2013 HEV Fusion and it shows comparable performance. The approach is effective for evaluation of new system…
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Quantification of Combustion Hazards of Thermal Runaway Failures in Lithium-Ion Batteries

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Exponent Inc.-Vijay Somandepalli, Kevin Marr, Quinn Horn
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1857
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
As lithium-ion cells and systems become larger and more ubiquitous in automotive applications, fire and explosion hazards that are rare or non-existent in smaller systems may exist in these larger systems. One potential hazard can occur when flammable gases emitted from a lithium-ion cell failure accumulate in or around automobiles and are ignited by electrical activity or by the cells themselves and result in a fire or explosion. In some instances, the safety aspects related to fires and explosions protection of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles using these large energy storage battery packs are a significant challenge to address. This paper describes and characterizes the combustion and explosion hazards that can occur when a lithium ion battery pack fails and goes into thermal runaway in an enclosed space. Metrics such as gas composition, maximum overpressure, rate of pressure rise, and flammability limits are described. This information can be helpful to battery and pack designers, vehicle designers, first responders and emergency personnel in developing strategies to mitigate and prevent explosion hazards from the use of battery…
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Test Results of the PLUGLESS™ Inductive Charging System from Evatran Group, Inc.

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Evatran Group Inc.-Brian Normann
Idaho National Lab.-Richard W. Carlson
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1824
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Laboratory testing is conducted on a wireless charging system by the Idaho National Laboratory in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. System efficiency and magnetic and electric field strength are measured during wireless charger operation over a wide range of conditions, including coil gap, offset alignment, and power transfer rate. Component surface temperatures are monitored at a full-power charge rate. The PLUGLESS™ inductive charging system from the Evatran Group, Inc. is tested in a laboratory setting and results are detailed.
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