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Wavelet Analysis for Frequency Disturbance Characterization in an Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Applus IDIADA-Marco Mammetti, Juan Garcia, Marina Roche Arroyos
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2870
Published 2013-11-27 by SAE International in United States
Reduction of CO2 emission is a mandatory objective for every actor in the field of automotive transport, and electric vehicles (EV's) are increasingly becoming an effective option for both OEMs and customers. However, components development and vehicle integration for EV's present new challenges that must be faced and new issues which need to be solved. In particular electric motor control systems are developed to achieve the same comfort conditions as in conventional vehicles. IDIADA developed a prototype electric commercial vehicle in which both the motor and driveline were integrated. The electric motor output shaft delivers the torque to the transmission under a certain level of load variation and with torque irregularities that must be smoothed out in the transmission components. This paper studies the results of the testing of the prototype vehicle carried out to improve the overall NVH behavior of the powertrain. The test results revealed that abrupt change in frequency content must be limited in order to avoid torque irregularities from the motor to the transmission. The abrupt change in current from the…
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A Model to Assess the Benefits of an After-Market Hybridization Kit based on Realistic Driving Habits and Charging Infrastructure

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Universita Degli Studi Di Salerno-Vincenzo Marano, Hebert Medina, Marco Sorrentino, Gianfranco Rizzo
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-24-0086
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Despite the recent commercial success of HEVs, their market share is still insufficient to produce a significant impact on energy consumption on a global basis. Moreover, it is unlikely that, in next few years, the scenario will drastically change, since relevant investments on production plants would be needed and the market does not seem to provide the expected growth for such technologies. Therefore, the possibility of upgrading conventional vehicles to hybrid electric vehicles is gaining interest. Among the diverse options for hybridization, researchers are focusing on electrification of rear wheels in front-driven vehicles, by adopting in-wheel motors and adding a lithium-ion battery. Thus, the vehicle is transformed in a Through-The-Road parallel hybrid electric vehicle.This paper presents an energy-based model, developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, of a conventional vehicle hybridized by means of such conversion kit. The model has a modular approach, where different powertrain configurations are considered, specifically with different battery sizes, different in-wheel motors power, with/without plug-in capabilities. An additional level of complexity comes from the opportunity to integrate flexible PV panels into the hybridization…
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An Application of the Particle Velocity Transfer Path Analysis to a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motor Sound

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Hitachi America, Ltd.-Akira Inoue, Yosuke Tanabe
Hitachi, Ltd.-Masanori Watanabe
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1999
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
A pioneering approach to implement transfer path analysis (TPA) is proposed in this paper through applying it to an automobile. We propose to use particle velocity as a measure of TPA, in addition to using sound pressure as a conventional measure for TPA. These two quantities together will give a comprehensive and complete definition of sound. Although sound pressure is a scalar, while particle velocity is a vector, it is also proposed that the same technique of the conventional sound pressure TPA should be independently applicable to each component of particle velocity vector. This has been experimentally verified with a study on our test box system. In this paper, we apply the proposed TPA to an actual vehicle to examine its applicability, advantages and limitations. The driving motor sound of a hybrid electric vehicle is chosen as the case study. A tri-axial particle velocity sensor which also measures sound pressure at the same point is utilized in the experiment. Both structure-borne and air-borne sound paths are considered, and a miniature shaker and a volume velocity…
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Rapid Prototyping Energy Management System for a Single Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Michigan Technological Univ.-Yang Li, Pushkar Agashe, Zicheng Ge, Bo Chen
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0155
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Energy management is one of the key challenges for the development of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) due to its complex powertrain structure. Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation provides an open software architecture which enables rapid prototyping HEV energy management system. This paper presents the investigation of the energy management system for a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle using dSPACE eDrive HIL system. The parallel hybrid electric vehicle, energy management system, and low-level Electronic Control Unit (ECU) were modeled using dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models and dSPACE blocksets. Vehicle energy management is achieved by a vehicle-level controller called hybrid ECU, which controls vehicle operation mode and torque distribution among Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and electric motor. The individual powertrain components such as ICE, electric motor, and transmission are controlled by low-level ECUs. To examine the performance of hybrid ECU and low-level ECUs, vehicle mode control, speed tracking, energy distribution, regenerative braking, and engine operating region were investigated in the HIL environment with a hardware electric motor controller consisting of dSPACE MicroAutoBox II and the AC Motor Control Solution.…
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Closed Loop Control Algorithm of Fuel Cell Output Power for a City Bus

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Sunrise Power Co,. Ltd.-Quanquan Gan
Tsinghua Univ-Minggao Ouyang, Jianqiu Li, Haiyan Huang, Fuyuan Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0479
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper studies a control algorithm for fuel cell/battery city buses. The output power of the fuel cell is controlled by a D.C. converter, and the output ports of the converter and the battery are connected in parallel to supply power for the electric motor. One way to prolong service life is to have the fuel cell system to deliver a steady-state power. However, because of fluctuations in the bus voltage and uncertainness in the D.C. converter, the output power of the fuel cell system changes drastically. A closed-loop control algorithm is necessary to eliminate the errors between the output and target power of the fuel cell system. The algorithm is composed of two parts, the feed forward one and the feedback one. Influences of the bus voltage and D.C. efficiency are compensated automatically in the feedback algorithm by using a PI algorithm. The stability and robustness of the algorithm is analyzed. Formulas for choosing suitable parameters are given considering both the transient process and the system stability. Experimental results show that, the stable relative…
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Regenerative Braking Control Enhancement for the Power Split Hybrid Architecture with the Utilization of Hardware-in-the-loop Simulations

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Co-Kerem Bayar, Ryan McGee, Hai Yu, Dale Crombez
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1466
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This study presents the utilization of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach for regenerative braking (regen) control enhancement efforts for the power split hybrid vehicle architecture. The HIL stand used in this study includes a production brake control module along with the hydraulic brake system, constituted of an accelerator/brake pedal assembly, electric vacuum booster and pump, brake hydraulic circuit and four brake calipers.This work presents the validation of this HIL simulator with real vehicle data, during mild and heavy braking. Then by using the HIL approach, regen control is enhanced, specifically for two cases. The first case is the jerk in deceleration caused by the brake booster delay, during transitions from regen to friction braking. As an example, the case where the regen is ramped out at a low speed threshold, and the hydraulic braking ramped in, can be considered. During this transition, due to the communication delay and the delay associated with booster dynamics, the regen ramp out and hydraulic braking ramp in are not perfectly synchronized, which can cause a jerk in deceleration.The second case…
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Development of a Smart Main Relay Assembly using IGBTs for xEV Battery System

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

HK Semitech Co., LTD.-Taeyeon Lee, Byungsub Jung
Yura Corporation-Sang-Ryong Lee, Ho-Kyung Kim, Sa-Heun Wie, Dae-Hwan Kwon, Min-Chul Joo
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1764
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a smart main relay assembly or power relay assembly for xEV battery system. The role of main relay assembly is to connect and disconnect main high voltage battery and loads including the inverter. Current main relay is usually a special electro-mechanical relay which has a gas chamber to suppress electrical sparks between relay contacts for switching high current safely. The gas-chambered electro-mechanical relay is relatively too heavy and bulky to decrease design flexibility and may worsen fuel economy.The proposed smart main relay assembly uses IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) for transient states to switches on or off, and uses relays for steady states to connect or disconnect current. As no spark induces to relay contacts directly with the proposed method, conventional electro-mechanical relays without gas-chambers can be used. Therefore the mass and volume can be reduced to increase gas mileage and also reduce the material cost. Using a current sensor in the assembly, a fail-safe diagnosis function which detects and disconnects an abrupt change of high current up to a given limit,…
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Investigation of the Impact Phenomenon During Minor Collision

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Masashi Takahashi, Masaru Takabayashi, Hiroyuki Mitsuishi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1545
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
ISO 12405-1,2 specifies international testing standards for lithium-ion batteries for vehicles. In the mechanical shock test is used to determine if the battery is damaged due to the shock imposed when the vehicle runs over a curb or similar minor accidents. Therefore, we conducted minor collision tests against a curb using an actual vehicle and compared the test results with the conditions specified in ISO 12405-1,2. The results confirmed that the impulse wave obtained using an actual vehicle within the range of the test in this study differs from the shape of the impulse wave specified in ISO 12405-1,2.
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Development of a New Two-Motor Plug-In Hybrid System

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Naritomo Higuchi, Yoshihiro Sunaga, Masashi Tanaka, Hiroo Shimada
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1476
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A highly efficient two-motor plug-in hybrid system is developed to satisfy the global demands of CO2 reduction. This system switches three operation modes, what is called “EV Drive”, “Hybrid Drive” and “Engine Drive”, to maximize fuel efficiency according to the driving condition of the vehicle. Practical plug-in EV (Electric Vehicle) capability is also realized by adding a high-power on-board charger and a high capacity Li-ion battery to the original system.The outlines of the system components including a newly developed Atkinson cycle engine, a highly efficient electric coupled CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with built-in motor and generator, an integrated PCU (Power Control Unit) and an exclusive battery for plug-in HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) are described in this paper.In addition to the switching of three driving modes and the efficiency improvement of each device, cooperative control of the hybrid system is introduced.By installing this system in 2014 Accord plug-in hybrid, superior fuel economy is achieved with values of 46 MPG in CS (Charge Sustaining) mode and 115 MPGe (Miles Per Gallon equivalent) in CD (Charge Depleting) mode.…
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Developing a Utility Factor for Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Michael Duoba
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1474
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
As new advanced-technology vehicles are becoming more mainstream, analysts are studying their potential impact on petroleum use, carbon emissions, and smog emissions. Determining the potential impacts of widespread adoption requires testing and careful analysis. PHEVs possess unique operational characteristics that require evaluation in terms of actual in-use driving habits. SAE J2841, “Utility Factor Definitions for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using 2001 U.S. DOT National Household Travel Survey Data,” published by SAE in 2009 with a revision in 2010, is a guide to using DOT's National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) data to estimate the relative split between driving in charge-depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode for a particular PHEV with a given CD range. Without this method, direct comparisons of the merits of various vehicle designs (e.g., efficiency and battery size) cannot be made among PHEVs, or between PHEVs and other technologies.The dedicated battery electric vehicle (BEV) is now becoming a viable alternative to conventional vehicles and other advanced vehicles (like HEVs and PHEVs). However, a shortcoming persists in current comparisons between BEVs and other…
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