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A Novel Approach for Technology Development: A Success Story

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Olivier Pahud, Didier Hoste
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2330
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The composites development team at Bombardier Aerospace has pushed the Integrated Product Development Team to a new level. The team has been created outside the business priorities and was partially funded by a provincial government initiative to create a greener aircraft.A dedicated R&D team can reduce the gap between the different disciplines by encouraging them to work as one entity and rapidly develop high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and high Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) solutions. Additionally, the interactions between the groups create a harmonization of the development philosophy and a sharing of the building block approach. This leads to a significant cost and lead time reduction in the coupon, element and detail testing.The constitution of the team also has a great impact on the level of expertise and the flexibility to adjust to new demands. The team has built through the years an entire and complete external partner network that helps the team in specific subject matters.Knowledge management within the team, technology development and sharing become critical aspects as the projects grow. To ensure that…
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Utilizing Team Productivity Models in the Selection of Space Exploration Teams

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Central Florida-Angelo C. Conner, Luis Rabelo
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2082
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The term “productivity” all too often has becomes a buzz-word, ultimately diminishing its perceived importance. However, productivity is the major concern of any team, and therefore must be defined to gain an appropriate understanding of how a system is actually working. Here, productivity means the level of contribution to the throughput of a system such as defined in the Theory of Constraints. In the field of space exploration, the throughput is the number of milestones of the mission accomplished as well as the potential survival during extreme events (due to failures or other unplanned events).For a time tasks were accomplished by expert individuals (e.g., an astronaut), but recently team structures have become the norm. It is clear that with increased mission complexity, “no single entity can have complete knowledge of or the abilities to handle all matters” [10]. Understanding now that teamwork is important, beneficial, and becoming the standard, a team profile must be developed. This profile will include team member selecting factors (e.g., general intelligence), team organization, and team management.This paper outlines our initial…
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Process Change: Redesign of Composite Parts for Structural Integrity

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace-Jean-Philippe Lachance, Jean-Evrard Brunel
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2328
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this document is to present the methodology used to verify the structural integrity of a redesigned composite part. While shifting the manufacturing process of a composite part from pre-impregnated to a liquid resin injection process, the Composites Development team at Bombardier Aerospace had to redesign the component to a new set of design allowables. The Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) was able to quickly provide a turnkey solution that assessed three aspects of airframe engineering: Design, Materials & Processes (M&P) and Stress. The focus of this paper will be the stress substantiation process led by the Stress Engineers. It will also bring up the synergies with M&P that are unique to the IPDT approach.The stress substantiation process required three distinct checks be confirmed. These were that the global behavior of the surrounding structure remained unaffected, that all local failure modes still exhibited positive margins of safety, and finally to organize detail level testing to provide complete substantiation for the certification authorities.The paper also exposes how this method was used successfully on components…
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Body Join Drilling for One-Up-Assembly

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing-Dennis Mathis
Electroimpact Inc.-Michael Assadi, Christopher Martin, Eliot Siegel
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2296
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Over 1,200 large diameter holes must be drilled into the side-of-body join on a Boeing commercial aircraft's fuselage. The material stack-ups are multiple layers of primarily titanium and CFRP. Due to assembly constraints, the holes must be drilled for one-up-assembly (no disassembly for deburr).In order to improve productivity, reduce manual drilling processes and improve first-time hole quality, Boeing set out to automate the drilling process in their Side-of-Body join cell. Implementing an automated solution into existing assembly lines was complicated by the location of the target area, which is over 15 feet (4 meters) above the factory floor.The Side-of-Body Drilling machines (Figure 1) are capable of locating, drilling, measuring and fastening holes with less than 14 seconds devoted to non-drilling operations. Drilling capabilities provided for holes up to ¾″ in diameter through stacks over 4.5″ thick in a titanium/CFRP environment. Using high precision servo control, each layer could be customized with specific drill parameters optimized to improve hole quality and decrease drill cycle time. Drill life was improved by tracking depth drilled for each drill…
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The CFD Analysis of Pressure Pulsation in the Aircraft Engine and Control Systems Lubrication Pump

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

United Technologies Aerospace Systems-William W. Ni, Daniel Bartholme, Michael Cass
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2084
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Fluid pressure pulsation in a fluid system is an inherent consideration in applications such as aircraft engine and control systems where mechanical component fatigue life and flow performance are critical. Positive displacement pumps transmitting fluid through hydraulic lines under high pressure impart periodic flow pulses to the fluid which can induce undesirable pressure ripple. Some failures of advanced aircraft prototype hardware were traced to a break in the hydraulic component of the control system due to severe localized responses to periodic pressure pulsations produced by a pump flow-induced ripple at the system resonant frequency. This response is associated with a strong structural fluid resonance that is not sufficiently damped by fluid leakage internal to the aircraft hydraulic system. In the case of pumps or hydraulic motors the main source of pulsation energy is in the flow-induced pressure wave associated with the system plumbing pressure pulsations. The pressure wave may propagate in both the pumping wall and fluid as a result of fluid/structure coupling. For a high level of pressure pulsation, the resulting pumping wall motion…
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Handling of Large Components for Aircraft Assembly Using an Adaptable Network of Different Kinematic Units

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

ZeMA-Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2334
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Today's assembly devices used for large-volume components in the aerospace industry are characterized by their inflexibility. This inflexibility is evident by the common use of custom designed rigid structures and specially adapted solutions for a single task. This paper describes an approach for a flexible assembly device, using the example of an aircraft section assembly, capable of integrating and exchanging different kinematic units making it highly adaptable to a variety of assembly tasks and product types. This reconfigurable assembly device uses an integrated measuring system enabling it to handle and assemble different large components with high tolerance requirements.
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Increasing Machine Accuracy by Spatially Compensating Large Scale Machines for Use in Constructing Aerospace Structures

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Todd Rudberg
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2298
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Starting in 2003 Electroimpact began development on a comprehensive kinematic and compensation software package for machines with large envelopes. The software was first implemented on Electroimpact's Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) equipment. Implementation became almost universal by 2005. By systematically collecting tracker measurements at various machine poses and then using this software to optimize the kinematic parameters of the machine, we are able to reliably achieve machine positional accuracy of approximately 2x the uncertainty of the measurements themselves.The goal of this paper is to document some of the features of this system and show the results of compensation in the hope that this method of machine compensation or similar versions will become mainstream.
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Environmental Impact Assessment, on the Operation of Conventional and More Electric Large Commercial Aircraft

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Cranfield University-Ravinka Seresinhe, Craig Lawson, Roberto Sabatini
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2086
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Global aviation is growing exponentially and there is a great emphasis on trajectory optimization to reduce the overall environmental impact caused by aircraft. Many optimization techniques exist and are being studied for this purpose. The CLEAN SKY Joint Technology Initiative for aeronautics and Air transport, a European research activity run under the Seventh Framework program, is a collaborative initiative involving industry, research organizations and academia to introduce novel technologies to improve the environmental impact of aviation. As part of the overall research activities, “green” aircraft trajectories are addressed in the Systems for Green Operations (SGO) Integrated Technology Demonstrator.This paper studies the impact of large commercial aircraft trajectories optimized for different objectives applied to the on board systems. It establishes integrated systems models for both conventional and more electric secondary power systems and studies the impact of fuel, noise, time and emissions optimized trajectories on each configuration. It shows the significant change in the fuel burn due to systems operation and builds up the case as to why a detailed aircraft systems model is required within…
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An Architecture for Monitoring and Anomaly Detection for Space Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Central Florida-Edwin A. Cortes, Luis Rabelo
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2090
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Complex aerospace engineering systems require innovative methods for performance monitoring and anomaly detection. The interface of a real-time data stream to a system for analysis, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection can require distributed system architectures and sophisticated custom programming. This paper presents a case study of a simplified interface between Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) real-time data output, signal processing, cloud computing, and tablet systems. The discussed approach consists of three parts: First, the connectivity of real-time data from PLCs to the signal processing algorithms, using standard communication technologies.Second, the interface of legacy routines, such as NASA's Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), with a hybrid signal processing system.Third, the connectivity and interaction of the signal processing system with a wireless and distributed tablet, (iPhone/iPad) in a hybrid system configuration using cloud computing.This proposed configuration allows for back-and-forth interactivity between tablet logic, standard signal processing systems, PLC logic, and remote aerospace system hardware. The application of tablet computing in the cloud can provide flexibility of operations in spacecraft systems. Astronauts can use tablets as a mobile device for…
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Experimental Prediction of Shock Response Spectra of Point-Wise Explosive Pyroshock in a Space Launcher Composite Structure Using Laser Pulse Excitation and In-line Filtering

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Chonbuk National University-Mijin Choi
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2088
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Numerous pyrotechnic devices have been employed in satellite launch vehicle missions, generally for the separation of structural subsystems such as stage and satellite separation. The detonation of the pyrotechnic devices generates shock waves characterized by high accelerations and vibrations which cause the failure of electronic components. To reduce the possibility of failure, many researchers have attempted to develop various experimental and numerical simulation methods for investigating pyroshock behavior to determine the appropriate placement of sensitive equipment. However, most of those methods have limitations such as low flexibility and high costs in the experimental methods and relatively low efficiency and reliability in the numerical methods. This study proposes a simple experimental method for pyroshock prediction using only laser pulse excitation and in-line filters for composite structure. Overall configuration of SRS (Shock Response Spectrum) curve of conditioned laser shock was adjusted with laser fluence changes and its tails were tailored using in-line and numerical filters to match those of real pyroshock. The simulation results present the SRS curves match throughout the frequency range of interest with high…
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