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A Model-based Solution to Robust and Early Detection of Control Surface Runaways

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Airbus-Philippe Goupil, Rémy Dayre, Hervé Le Berre
IMS-Ali Zolghadri, Anca Gheorghe, Jérôme Cieslak, David Henry
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2803
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses the design of a model-based fault detection scheme for robust and early detection of runaways in aircraft control surfaces servo-loop. The proposed scheme can be embedded within the structure of in-service monitoring systems as a part of the Flight Control Computer (FCC) software. The final goal is to contribute to improve the performance detection of unanticipated runaway faulty profiles having very different dynamic behaviors, while retaining a perfect robustness. The paper discusses also the tradeoffs between adequacy of the technique and its implementation level, industrial validation process with Engineering support tools, as well as the tuning aspects. The proposed methodology is based on a combined data-driven and system-based approach using a dedicated Kalman filtering. The technique provides an effective method ensuring robustness and good performance (well-defined real-time characteristics and well-defined error rates). Simulation results, using In-flight recorded data sets provided by Airbus, are presented to demonstrate the potential of the developed technique.
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Audio/Video and Hard Real-Time Capability for Advanced IMA Architectures

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

TTTech. Computertechnik AG-Mirko Jakovljevic
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2699
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
The design of complex integrated systems and avionics architectures relies on the system architect's capability to manage key system interfaces, and share computing and networking resources. The capability of Ethernet-based ARINC 664 avionics networks to handle critical traffic with μs-jitter and fixed latency can be expanded using the Layer 2 Quality Of Service (QoS) protocol enhancements described in SAE AS6802. All existing critical distributed functions using ARINC 664 Virtual Links (VLs) can operate without congestion and with prescribed maximum latencies.This paper discusses basic considerations for how time-triggered services based on AS6802 standard could enable integration of hard real-time and audio/video capabilities in advanced ARINC 664-based IMA architectures. In order to adapt those capabilities to existing design processes for ARINC 664 networks, time-triggered services described in SAE AS6802 can be modeled as periodic ARINC664 traffic with μs-jitter and fixed latency.Both standards integrated on one switch establish Ethernet as the deterministic unified Ethernet technology for time-, safety-, and mission-critical applications, capable of handling any low-jitter, low-latency and lossless applications. Finally, an overview is provided which shows how…
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A Personal Plane Air Transportation System - The PPlane Project

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Intergam Communications-Moshe Harel
ONERA-Claude Le Tallec, Antoine Joulia
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2697
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
The seventh European Framework Program (FP7) “Personal Plane” project (PPlane) aims at developing system ideas to enable personal air transport in the long term (2030 and beyond). Such a system will avoid the ever increasing congestion on European roads and offer an alternative to the current conventional transport system across Europe, in particular in those states that still have poor highway and railway networks.The preliminary assumption made in the PPlane project is that automatisms should be developed to enable a “regular Joe” to use a personal aircraft, in various weather conditions, without any command and control difficulties, using a “push button” navigation interface. An on-board automatic system will take care of the complex issues of integration into the airspace (other sky users, class of airspace, Special Use Airspace…), navigation and emergency management.A systematic and innovative approach has been developed and implemented within the PPlane project in order to understand and analyze customers' needs and to propose novel ideas for a Personal Air Transport System (PATS). This system would satisfy the end users while respecting all…
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Challenges for Health Monitoring of Electromechanical Flight Control Actuation Systems

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

German Aerospace Center-Hannes Wagner, Galin Nikolov, Andreas Bierig, Holger Spangenberg
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2701
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
Flight control systems of civil aircraft have undergone huge developments in the last decades. The current more/ all electric aircraft concepts lead to the replacement of the hydraulic actuators in the primary flight control systems by electromechanical systems. Integrating electromechanical systems in safety critical applications implies three main challenges: (a) the detection of all fault cases which could lead to a safety critical state, (b) finding measurement parameters capable to detect faults, and (c) the development of algorithms to detect faults under all flight conditions. Putting the scope on the health monitoring of the mechanical components of a direct drive actuator, a new technology based on piezoresistive thin film sensors (TFS) is presented and its potential shown by using defective ball bearings as an example.
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An Overview of the V&V of Flight-Critical Systems Effort at NASA

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

NASA-Guillaume Brat
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2560
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
As the US is getting ready for the Next Generation (NextGen) of Air Traffic System, there is a growing concern that the current techniques for verification and validation will not be adequate for the changes to come. The JPDO (in charge of implementing NextGen) has given NASA a mandate to address the problem and it resulted in the formulation of the V&V of Flight-Critical Systems effort. This research effort is divided into four themes: argument-based safety assurance, distributed systems, authority and autonomy, and, software intensive systems. This paper presents an overview of the technologies that will address the problem.
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Multivariable Aircraft Engine Controller Design Using an Optimal Loop Shaping Approach

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica-Douglas F R Silva, Joao Barbosa, Alberto Adade Filho
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2511
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
The current pressure for fuel burn savings and increasing performance in the commercial aerospace market demands highly complex engine control systems to optimize fuel consumption throughout the engine operating envelope, as well as meet the regulatory requirements in terms of safety and performance. These conflicting objectives normally lead to trade-off solutions that are difficult to precisely estimate. Therefore some decisions to characterize the engine controller still reside on experience from previous designs and, as a result, add subjectivity and increase the potential for wrong parameter selection.This paper proposes an algorithmic approach to design a turbojet engine controller in a multivariable, two-degree-of-freedom configuration, obtaining H-infinity robust stabilization. It introduces an optimized loop shaping design procedure, with the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA), to further improve the control system performance, as well as bring the experience applied by controller designers and engineers to an automated process, when setting the parameters to shape the frequency response of the engine control loops. The resulting controller is evaluated by computer simulations under typical operating conditions and it is compared…
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LTD Bolt Injection System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Electroimpact Inc.-Cosmos Krejci
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2776
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
Growing use of composite materials in aircraft wing construction requires a new generation of drilling machines. Electroimpact's new LTD drilling machine features a Bolt Injector with improvements for more streamlined operation and less operator intervention. The Bolt Injector “injects” or stages Single Sided Temporary Fasteners (SSTF). It features hands-free automated tool change between three different feed paths for a total of eight different fastener diameters being fed through one set of Bolt Injector hardware. This is accomplished with an indexing system for three feed tubes fed to the machine head, with each feed tube serving more than one diameter. Furthermore the LTD Bolt Injector checks fastener diameter at the machine head and also length in conjunction with Bolt Inserter servo axis. The bolt diameter is checked with an analog sensor attached to a gripping mechanism. The length check is accomplished with a “touch off” pad and the Inserter's servo motor encoder. The LTD Injector is the latest in SSTF bolt feed systems and offers increased functionality and reduced operator involvement contributing to more efficient utilization…
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Optimization Methods for Portable Automation Equipment Utilizing Motion Tracking Technology

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Boeing Co-Alan Merkley
Boeing Co.-Eric M. Reid
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2668
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
The use of portable automated equipment has increased in recent years with the introduction of flex track, crawling robots, and other innovative machine configurations. Portable automation technologies such as these lower infrastructure costs by minimizing factory floor space requirements and foundation expenses. Portable automation permits a higher density of automated equipment to be used adjacent to aircraft during assembly. This equipment also allows concurrent work in close proximity to automated processes, promotes flexibility for changes in rate, build plan, and floor space requirements throughout the life of an airplane program.This flexibility presents challenges that were not encountered with traditional fixed machine drilling centers. The work zone surrounding portable machines is relatively small, requiring additional setup time to relocate and position machines near the airframe. Moveable equipment also allows more opportunities for human error, such as loading parts and programs out of sequence, leading to operational inefficiencies and rework. A well executed manufacturing plan is needed to determine machine loading strategy to efficiently position and operate the machines. This paper will examine methods to improve efficiency…
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Electromagnetic Energy Coupling Mechanism on Cables and Systems - A Comparison Composite Aircraft Versus Metal Aircraft and Impact on Testing Procedure

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Bombardier Aerospace Core Engineering-Fidele Moupfouma
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2513
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
In the past ten years, the all composite commercial aircraft has become a reality and the need for the aircraft designer to consider electromagnetic threats has also grown. Aircraft systems are now designed with miniaturized electronic components, which make them more sensitive to EMI; and it turns out that the safety of flight relies on the functionality of some of these systems.Composite materials (Polymer Matrix Composites, PMCs) are characterized by their low conductivity that greatly reduces the shielding effectiveness of the aircraft structure and consequently the protection of systems against HIRF, and mainly against lightning indirect effects. Indeed, due to the low conductivity, lightning current which is focused in low frequency spectrum, will not decay through the composite skin material as quick as it does in all metal skin; and aircraft skin is not thick enough compared to the skin effect for this low frequency spectrum, to reduce substantially the current through composite structure. Therefore the diffusion effect of lightning current in composite aircraft structure will be substantially higher than all metal aircraft, so there…
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A Model Generator for Simulation and Testing of RDCs

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Diehl Aerospace GmbH-Heinrich Rotgang
Hamburg University of Technology-Kai Schories, Frank Thielecke
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2636
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
Simulation of avionics equipment is essential due to the complex nature of its development and integration process. Throughout the development process, executable component models are used to demonstrate the feasibility and the compliance of the system design with respect to its functional requirements. In later development phases, there is the need for system integration tests where a mix of real and simulated equipment is used to verify the overall system behavior. Since Boeing 777 and Airbus A380 programs, IMA1 technology has entered several civil aircraft systems. In recent programs like Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 the number of IMA components has significantly increased. In this paper we present a simulation model for a new IMA component - the common Remote Data Concentrator (CRDC)2, which is developed by Thales-Diehl for the Airbus A350 XWB. Building simulation models of IMA components is in general a challenging task due to their complexity on both software and hardware level. The particular challenges faced here, have their roots in two areas. The first is due to the configurable functional behavior…
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