Vehicle Powertrain Simulation Accuracy for Various Drive Cycle Frequencies and Upsampling Techniques



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Authors Abstract
As connected and automated vehicle technologies emerge and proliferate, lower frequency vehicle trajectory data is becoming more widely available. In some cases, entire fleets are streaming position, speed, and telemetry at sample rates of less than 10 seconds. This presents opportunities to apply powertrain simulators such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator to model how advanced powertrain technologies would perform in the real world. However, connected vehicle data tends to be available at lower temporal frequencies than the 1-10 Hz trajectories that have typically been used for powertrain simulation. Higher frequency data, typically used for simulation, is costly to collect and store and therefore is often limited in density and geography. This paper explores the suitability of lower frequency, high availability, connected vehicle data for detailed powertrain simulation. A large data set of 1 Hz trajectories is used to quantify the accuracy loss when simulating energy consumption for conventional, hybrid, and battery electric powertrains using less than 1 Hz data. Techniques to upsample lower frequency drive cycle data in order to increase accuracy are also explored. Median energy consumption errors when simulating energy consumption for a 1/10 Hz trajectory are found to be 3-6% when compared to 1 Hz trajectories. Applying upsampling and interpolation techniques are shown to reduce the simulation errors by roughly 50%. The findings in this work can guide connected vehicle data collection specifications and processing techniques applied when using collected data for powertrain simulation.
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O'Meally, F., Holden, J., and Gilleran, M., "Vehicle Powertrain Simulation Accuracy for Various Drive Cycle Frequencies and Upsampling Techniques," SAE Technical Paper 2023-01-0345, 2023,
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Apr 11, 2023
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Technical Paper