Soot and Gaseous Emissions Characterization of Butyl-Acetate/Diesel Blend in a Heavy-Duty Engine



WCX SAE World Congress Experience
Authors Abstract
Significant effort has been put toward developing future-generation biofuels aimed at either spark-ignition or compression-ignition engines. Butyl-Acetate (BA), C6H12O2, is one such fuel that may be viable as a soot reduction drop-in blend candidate without significant impact on performance or efficiency. Though BA does have a low CN (≈ 20) and heating value (27 MJ/kg), it offers promise as a drop in blend-candidate with pump diesel due to its improved cold weather performance, high flash point, and potential for high volume renewable production capacity.
This work investigated the impacts of 5% by volume blend of BA and standard pump diesel (DF2) on overall performance and with a particular focus on soot behavior. Tests were completed at 13 operating points spanning the operating map including full power. Results show a significant reduction in soot without significant impact on NOx emissions and minimal impact on thermal efficiency. Of course, BSFC increases due to the reduced heating value but does not have a noticeable impact on ECU operating set-points or resulting in-cylinder combustion-related parameters. Ultimately, despite decrease in global oxygen-to-fuel ratio with BA blend and no clear changes to combustion or control behavior, soot concentration is reduced by an average of 30%. The potential impact on regeneration cycles for the soot particulate filter enabled by this soot reduction represent clear opportunity for corresponding reduction in total fuel consumption for operators.
Meta TagsDetails
Hall, S., and Bittle, J., "Soot and Gaseous Emissions Characterization of Butyl-Acetate/Diesel Blend in a Heavy-Duty Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2023-01-0267, 2023,
Additional Details
Apr 11, 2023
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Technical Paper