Research on Key Factors for Range and Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles



WCX SAE World Congress Experience
Authors Abstract
Investigations were conducted to examine the potential to optimize the energy consumption and drive range of Electric Vehicles (EV). Theoretically, the energy consumption is strongly influenced by: 1) system efficiency, 2) coasting resistance, 3) energy recovery technology. These three factors are studied in detail through both simulation tool and experimental test. Research was performed on a Changan EV sedan to explore the influence of each factor on energy consumption and drive range. The most paramount factor is vehicle coasting resistance, followed by drivetrain system efficiency. To reduce coasting resistance, tires with low resistance coefficient, low friction brake clamps, and the modification of vehicle styling can all be applied. Drivetrain efficiency includes motor efficiency, inverter efficiency, and gearbox efficiency. Interestingly, the impact of energy recovery technology is sensitive to driving conditions. I-pedal technology which can supply deceleration up to 0.2g has little influence over NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) but can extend the range over real-world driving by up to 10%. This is because the regenerating potential is higher in real world driving (higher acceleration and deceleration). In summary, with all feasible approaches applied on the test vehicle, energy consumption was reduced by 11.5%. The predominant factor, coasting resistance, contributed 5.5% to energy consumption reduction and 6.5% to range increase. Improving powertrain system efficiency yielded a 3% reduction in energy consumption and a 3.3% increase in drive range.
Meta TagsDetails
Zhao, C., Gong, G., Yu, C., Liu, Y. et al., "Research on Key Factors for Range and Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0723, 2019,
Additional Details
Apr 2, 2019
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Content Type
Technical Paper